Đề tài Nghiên cứu khoa học bằng tiếng Anh

English is one of the important subjects at High School. It has been used for Final Examinations to evaluate students’ level of knowledge. Therefore, whether students are proficient at English or not is very important to them. Being proficient at English means student is good at both received skills - reading and listening, and productive skills - speaking and writing. These four skills are integrated in a lesson to improve all these skills for the students, because one certain skill can be used to improve the others. Reading is an important and useful skill, because reading is the first step for students to get main and general information about a topic and it is a tool for students to get more information. In addition to, through reading, students can improve their vocabulary in various fields such as real life, science, and culture. Reading can not only train students’ thinking abilities but it also gives students a lot of updated information. In real life, students are able to read different kinds of materials such as documents, newspapers, and magazines. Therefore, reading is one of the good ways to get information, and to obtain knowledge. Reading is an important skill and subject, while “Most of grade 10 students in Thanh Binh-1 High School are not very good at Reading.” said, Mr. NguyenVan Be No, the Head of Foreign Language Teaching Staff in Thanh Binh-1 High School. As a student of pedagogical field, and a teacher of English in the near future, I am concerned in this problem. Moreover, no one has studied the causes of the problem so far. For some reasons above, the study was carried out to seek the real reasons, as well as, the solutions to the problems.

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TABLES OF CONTENTS Statement of authorship i Acknowledgements ii Abstract iii Table of contents 1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 3 1.1 Background of the study 3 1.2 Aims of the study 3 1.3 The significance of the study 4 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 5 2.1 Definition of reading 5 2.2 The importance of reading 5 2.3 Some reading skills 5 2.3.1 Skimming 5 2.3.2 Scanning 6 2.3.3 Inferring 6 2.3.4 Guessing the meaning from context 6 2.3.5 Answering comprehension question 6 2.4 Factors influence the progress of reading in language learning 7 2.4.1 Reader variables 7 2.4.2 Text topic and content 8 CHAPTER THREE THE METHODOLOGY 9 3.1 Researcher 9 3.2 Research questions 9 3.3 Subject 9 3.4 Setting 9 3.5 Data collection instruments 9 3.5.1 Textbook analysis 10 3.5.2 Questionnaire 10 3.5.3 Observation 12 3.6 Data collection procedure 13 3.6.1 Textbook analysis procedure 13 3.6.2 Questionnaires procedure 13 3.6.3 Observation procedure 13 CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 14 4.1 Results 14 4.1.1 Results of textbook analysis 14 4.1.2 Results of questionnaires 19 4.1.3 Results of observation 35 4.2 Discussions 40 4.2.1 Research question (1) 40 4.2.2 Research question (2) 41 CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 42 5.1 Conclusions 42 5.2 Recommendations 42 5.2.1 For the textbook 42 5.2.2 For teachers 43 5.2.3 For students 44 5.3 Limitations of the study 49 REFERENCES 51 APPENDIXES 52 Appendix 1a 52 Appendix 1b 55 Appendix 2 58 Appendix 3 62 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the study English is one of the important subjects at High School. It has been used for Final Examinations to evaluate students’ level of knowledge. Therefore, whether students are proficient at English or not is very important to them. Being proficient at English means student is good at both received skills - reading and listening, and productive skills - speaking and writing. These four skills are integrated in a lesson to improve all these skills for the students, because one certain skill can be used to improve the others. Reading is an important and useful skill, because reading is the first step for students to get main and general information about a topic and it is a tool for students to get more information. In addition to, through reading, students can improve their vocabulary in various fields such as real life, science, and culture. Reading can not only train students’ thinking abilities but it also gives students a lot of updated information. In real life, students are able to read different kinds of materials such as documents, newspapers, and magazines. Therefore, reading is one of the good ways to get information, and to obtain knowledge. Reading is an important skill and subject, while “Most of grade 10 students in Thanh Binh-1 High School are not very good at Reading.” said, Mr. NguyenVan Be No, the Head of Foreign Language Teaching Staff in Thanh Binh-1 High School. As a student of pedagogical field, and a teacher of English in the near future, I am concerned in this problem. Moreover, no one has studied the causes of the problem so far. For some reasons above, the study was carried out to seek the real reasons, as well as, the solutions to the problems. 1.2 Aims of the study To find out grade 10 students’ common problems in learning reading To suggest solutions for these problems 1.3 The significance of the study Via solutions suggested in the study that based on the real problems also found in the study, both teachers of English and students to solve the problems in reading classes. The teachers can get certain suggestions to teach English reading more successfully or improve students’ reading skills because being good at reading partly helps students good at learning EFL. It means the study can partly help teachers and students better their teaching and learning. CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Definition of reading Reading comprehension does not mean being able to answer all questions in the tasks in the textbook Reading comprehension is understanding a text that is read, or the process of "constructing meaning" from a text. Comprehension is a "construction process" because it involves all of the elements of the reading process working together as a text is read to create a representation of the text in the reader's mind. (As defined by Partnership for Reading (2005)) Mr. Françoise Grellet (1992) defines that understanding a written text means extracting the required information from it as efficiently as possible. 2.2 The importance of reading In the first place, many of people want to be able to read texts in English for their either study purposes or simple for pleasure. All we can do to make reading easier are significant. Reading texts also provide good models for English writing. When we teach the skill of writing, we will need to show students models of what we are encourage them to do. Reading texts also provide opportunities to study language such as vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation and the way we construct sentences, paragraphs and texts. Lastly, good reading texts can introduce interesting topics, stimulate discussion, excite imaginative responses, and be fascinating lessons. 2.3 Some reading skills 2.3.1 Skimming According to Wegmann, B. and Knezevic, M. (2007), skimming is a useful way to get an overview of a reading section. To skim, move your eyes quickly through the whole reading; make sure that you look at the titles, headings, and illustrations. Do not stop for details or worry about words you do not understand. Keep going like a fast-moving train from beginning to end. Afterward, you will have a general idea of the content. Then you can read the text again with better comprehension. 2.3.2 Scanning According to Wegmann, B. and Knezevic, M. (2007), we skim for general ideas, for facts or details. To scan, move the eyes quickly over the reading until we come to the specific piece of information that we want. If you know that it is in the middle or toward the end of the reading, start there. Do not be distracted by other items. Concentrate. When we find what we want, use it. Then go to the next point. 2.3.3 Inferring According to Wegmann, B. and Knezevic, M. (2007), inferences are ideas or opinions are not stated but that can be inferred from the information given. For example, if your friend says, “Shoot! I have to wear my heavy coat today,” you can infer that he thinks it is cold outside and that he is not happy about this. Learning how to make inferences makes you a better reader and a clearer thinker. 2.3.4 Guessing the meaning from context As mentioned by Forseth, R et all (1998), this skill should be develop as a normal response to unknown words in a passage to avoid an excessive use of the dictionary. 2.3.5 Answering comprehension question While reading, the students are asked to answer some questions about the passage. In other words, they perform how well they obtain knowledge through answering these questions, using their skills in reading. 2.4 Factors influence the progress of reading in language learning 2.4.1 Reader variables 2.4.1.1 Background knowledge The nature of the knowledge that the readers have will influence not only what they remember of the text, but the product – their understanding of the text – and the way they process it. What they know affects what they understand. 2.4.1.2 Knowledge of language According to Alderson, J.C. (2003), if readers do not know the language of the text, then they will have great difficulties in processing the text. Nevertheless, structure knowledge has been shown to have a facilitative effect on reading. Having to struggle with reading because of unknown words will obviously affect comprehension and will take the pleasure out of reading. Alderson, J.C. (2003) cited from Research by Laufer (1989), Liu, and Nation (1985) that readers need to know 95% of the words in the text to gain adequate comprehension and to be able to guess unknown words from the text. On the other hand, not very surprisingly, in second- and foreign-language reading studies, there was an early emphasis on the importance of syntactic as well as lexical knowledge. In second-and foreign-language reading, it has always been assumed that learners must first acquire language knowledge before they can read. Alderson, J.C. (2003) showed that students had difficulty identifying the constituent structures in sentences with complex or unusual syntax. For example, where material preposed before the main verb or adverbial phrases come before the main clause. The ability to parse sentences into their correct syntactic structure appears to be an important element in understanding text. Moreover, students found it harder to process syntactic structures in English that differed from structures in the mother tongue. 2.4.1.3 Knowledge of topic Knowing how texts are organized – what sort of information to expect in what place – as well as knowing how information is signaled, and how changes of content might be marked – has long been thought to be of importance in facilitating reading. For example, knowing where to look for the main ideas in the paragraph, and being able to identify how subsidiary ideas are marked, ought in principle to help a reader to process information. 2.4.1.4 Reader motivation/interest Studies of poor second-language readers have shown that poor readers lack of motivation to read or spend time improving their ability to read. Of course, this is as likely to be effect of poor reading as the cause of it, but once established, poor motivation doubtless compounds the problem (‘success breeds success, failure breeds failure’). 2.4.2 Text topic and content The other side of the coin in the reader-text interaction is the text itself. Many aspects of text that might facilitate or make difficult the reading process have been studied, from a variety of different disciplines. Although linguistic is the obvious major source of insight into the language of text, texts have often been studied from a linguistic perspective without concern for the reader. It has too often been assumed that the analyst represents a typical reader, and that what results from the analysis can therefore be assumed to be true of any language processor. However, some linguists and particularly applied linguists have indeed been concerned with the impact of linguistic variables on the process of understanding texts. CHAPTER THREE THE METHODOLOGY 3.1 Researcher The researcher of the study is a fourth year student of Foreign Language Department, Dong Thap University. 3.2 Research questions The thesis attempts to answer the following questions: (1) What are grade 10 students’ problems in learning reading? (2) What are the solutions for these problems? 3.3 Subject Students at grade 10 in Thanh Binh-1 High School, they have been learning English for more than three years. Teachers who have been teaching English for a long tine in Thanh Binh-1 High School are experienced teachers. English 10 textbook were analyzed to find out whether it contained problems. 3.4 Setting The survey took place in Thanh Binh-1 High School where the researcher carried out teaching English performance. It was done in co-operation with the teachers and the students from February to March 2009. 3.5 Data collection instruments A number of procedures have been used for collecting information such as interviews, observations, record reviews, diaries, material analysis, etc. In this research, three instruments: textbook analysis, questionnaires and observation were chosen and employed. The usage of these instruments will be discussed below: 3.5.1 Textbook analysis The textbook are a material of reading; therefore, some of reading lessons in the textbook English 10, which would be taught or observed during the researcher’s teaching performance and contained problems, was analyzed to find out some common problems from them. 3.5.2 Questionnaire A questionnaire is “an instrument for the collecting data, usually in written form, consisting of open and /or closed questions and other probes requiring a response from subjects.” (Ms. Le Hong Phuong Thao. M.A. cited from Nunan (1992, p.231)). Questionnaires are printed form for data collection, which includes questions or statements to which the subjects are expected to respond, often anomalously. (Ms. Ms. Le Hong Phuong Thao, M.A. cited from LevSalinger & Shohamy (1989, p. 172)) Many researchers state that questionnaires are commonly used to collect data on phenomena, which are not easily observed, such as attitudes, motivation and self-conceptions, in other words, those in social science. The present researcher’s choice of using questionnaires comes from the following reasons. Firstly, questionnaires save the researcher’s time. They are self-administered and can be given to large groups at the same time (Salinger & Shohamy, 1989). It is easy to get the information from many people quickly and without the need of the researcher’s presence. Secondly, questionnaires help avoid pressure of interview bias when completing the questionnaires. Furthermore, when anonymity is assured, respondents tend to feel free to what they answer so that the result will be objective. It is because there is no face-to-face interaction between subjects and the interviewer. Questionnaires in the form of closed questions or statements, in which the respondent is asked to select an answer from a list provided by the researcher, provide a great uniformity and standard of responses are easy for statistical analysis afterwards. In order to answer the research questions, the two questionnaires were used: - Questionnaire 1a- for students (See Appendix 1a-in English, Appendix 1b-in Vietnamese) was given to the students. The questionnaire was firstly designed in English. Then - during the study in Thanh Binh-1 High School, the Questionnaire 1b was designed to find out the problems, it was translated into Vietnamese for the students to answer more easily and correctly. It is designed for the two main purposes as following: * To seek information about the students’ opinion about a Reading lesson in class * To find out the students’ common problems in reading The questionnaire designed includes 20 questions. 204 copies of the questionnaire in Vietnamese were given to the students in class, and collected all of them after 15 minutes. Question (1) was used to find out whether the students have habits in reading. From question (2) to the question (4) were employed to know about the students’ interest in reading. Question (5) and question (6) were implemented to get information about the students’ preparation vocabulary for reading. Question (7) and question (8) were designed to get information about the students’ memory in learning vocabulary. Question (9) was used to know whether the teachers employed techniques to elicit vocabulary. From question (10) to the question (14) were applied to know how well students’ reading skill was. Question (15) and question (16) were implemented to look for the reasons why students are not very good at reading. From question (17) to question (18) were used to seek information about the students’ dealing with the tasks. It is very common that students have often used reference books to do the tasks mentioned in the textbooks. Therefore, question from (19) to (20) were designed to find out the truth of this problems. - Questionnaire 2-for teachers: (See Appendix 2) * To seek information about their common techniques in a Reading lesson * To find out their difficulties in a Reading lesson Ten copies of the questionnaire were given to ten teachers at the beginning of my practice teaching course in Thanh Binh-1 High School and collected after a week. Question (1) and question (2) were designed to know about teaching vocabulary in reading classes. Question (3) was applied to find out whether the amount of vocabulary taught is enough or not for the students. Question (4) was employed to know how often the teachers elicit the words in pre-teaching vocabulary. Question (5) was used to know whether the teachers could make the stages of reading class relate to the others. Question (6) question (7) question (8) were implemented to know the teachers’ ability in making reading more interesting. Question (9) to question (12) were designed to know if the teachers redesigned the tasks in the textbook. Question (13) was used to know if the teachers integrate the skills in reading lessons. Question (14) was applied to find out the reasons why the students were not very good at reading. Question (15) was employed to know the difficulties of the teachers in teaching reading. Question (16) was used to seek the teachers’ solutions to the problems in reading lessons. Question (17) was designed to seek the teachers’ solutions to improve the students’ reading skill. 3.5.3 Observation (See Appendix 3) Based on problems found out from the textbook, observation was applied to know how both the teachers dealt with them. To do this job, some criteria was employed such as eliciting vocabulary, designing the tasks, changing the tasks’ orders, using reading activities, making the tasks proper with the students’ level, etc. 3.6 Data collection procedure 3.6.1 Textbook analysis procedure Before the researchers’ teaching performance in Thanh Binh-1 High School, she had chosen some reading lessons in textbook English 10 that were taught or observed during the study. Moreover, only reading lessons containing problems, according to the researcher, were analyzed, because it would be more accurate to use both analysis and observation. To seek the textbook’s problems easily and quickly, some aspects of the reading lessons were selected and analyzed such as shape of the lesson, the tasks’ requirements, and the tasks’ orders. The details are mentioned in chapter four. 3.6.2 Questionnaires procedure 204 the same copies of the questionnaire designed in Vietnamese were given to 5 classes of grade 10 in Thanh Binh-1 High School from February 16th, 2009 to February 21st, 2009 in class and collected after 15 minutes. However, there were 197 acceptable ones were analyzed. 3.6.3 Observation procedure During the time of teaching performance in the school, the researcher was going to participate in reading classes of grade 10 students and observe how well the students and the teacher performed in teaching and learning reading. The researcher chose some certain criteria to help her find out how the teachers dealt with the problems that the researcher found in the textbook such as redesigning the textbook. Via observation and teaching, the common problems in reading classes were taken note and then analyzed to find out students’ common problems in reading and the real causes of these problems. Thanks to the causes, some solutions to the problems were suggested. CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Chapter three has mentioned the three data collection instruments – questionnaires, observation and material analyzing. Therefore, this chapter will go on with the information collected from the three above instruments and discus the results of the study in detail. 4.1 Results This section will report the results of data analysis; it includes three main parts such as results of textbook analysis, questionnaires analysis and observation analysis. 4.1.1 Results of textbook analysis Before the researcher’s teaching performance in Thanh Binh-1 High School, she analyzed some reading lessons in the textbook English 10, which were observed or taught during the study. The results via analyzing them are showed below. Unit 10: CONSERVATION Lesson A: Reading (English 10, p.104-p.106) Shape of the lesson Activities/Tasks Comments “Bef