Designing an esp syllabus for the second-Year students of library study at the national teachers training college

1. Rationale The National Teachers’ Training College (NTTC) used to be the National College for Early Childhood Teachers No1. Thus, library study is a new field of study at the college. There have been students of library study since 2004. Although English has been taught at NTTC since 1990 and English is a compulsory subject, ESP is only taught for students of library study and computer science students. At the NTTC students take the General English (GE) course with 150 periods. After finishing their GE course students of library will take the ESP course of 60 periods. According to the training curriculum, the ESP is to be delivered in the third semester of the second year after two semesters of GE. The reading texts used for the ESP course are selected by the teachers of the English section from different sources and they use them as syllabus to plan the lessons. Since ESP has been a part of English teaching at the NTTC, there has never been an official guidance or any suggestions for the ESP teachers. Those who are responsible for teaching ESP for students of library study often choose the parts from their own sources, which they personally think, are important and appropriate for their learners without any investigation into the factors concerning ESP theories as well as the learners’ need or target situation. As a result, consideration for students’ need, the aim and objectives of the ESP course is nowhere to stay but is subjected to teachers’ subjective options. It is clear that a syllabus contributes to the success and fulfills the objectives of an English course. A syllabus is an integral component in the process of the course design. Hutchinson and Waters (1987, p.83-84) explain why we should have a syllabus by identifying the roles of a syllabus. The syllabus, defining the constituent parts of language knowledge is a practical basis for the division of assessment, textbooks and learning time. Apart from its practical benefits, a syllabus gives more support to the teachers and learners in that it makes the language-learning tasks appear manageable. A syllabus is an implicit statement of view on the nature of what is taken to be the most important aspect of language learning. A syllabus then tells the teacher and the student not only what to be learned but also why it is to be learned. The shortage of an appropriate syllabus for the second year students of library study at the NTTC is a big and urgent question, waiting to be answered. And it is of great necessity and significance to both teachers who are teaching ESP and students of library study. This is the reason why the topic “Designing an ESP syllabus for the second year students of library study at the NTTC” is the subject matter chosen for my thesis. 2. Aims and Objectives The study aims at designing an appropriate ESP syllabus for the second year students of library study at the NTTC. To achieve this aim, three objectives are set to be obtained.  To develop a theoretical framework related to an ESP syllabus design.  To conduct a Needs Analysis to identify the students’ learning situation, the learning needs perceived by the teachers who are responsible for the ESP course, subject teachers, and the second year students of library study.  To propose an appropriate ESP syllabus for the target students based on the relevant theories and the Needs Analysis. 3. Research questions To attain these above aims and objectives the following research questions are raised:  What are the students’ learning needs and target needs?  What should be included in the syllabus? The answer to these question help to develop an appropriate ESP syllabus for the second year students of library study at NTTC. 4. Scope of the Study The study limits itself to design an ESP reading syllabus for the second year students of library study at the NTTC. The author of the study is concerned with the second year students of library study, subject teachers and English teachers at the NTTC. Other approaches to syllabus designs intended for students and other subjects at any other levels of English language proficiency would be beyond the scope.

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Vietnam national university, Hanoi College of foreign languages Post-Graduate Department ---------------------------------------------- Duong Thi hao Designing an esp syllabus for the second-year students of library study at the national teachers training college “ ThiÕt kÕ gi¸o tr×nh tiÕng Anh chuyªn ngµnh cho sinh viªn n¨m thø hai ngµnh Th­ viÖn tr­êng Cao §¼ng S­ Ph¹m Trung ­¬ng” MA. minor thesis Major: English language teaching methodology Code: 601014 Hanoi, 2007 Vietnam national university, Hanoi College of foreign languages Post-Graduate Department ------------------------------------------------ Duong Thi hao Designing an esp syllabus for the second year students of library study at the national teachers training college “ ThiÕt kÕ gi¸o tr×nh tiÕng Anh chuyªn ngµnh cho sinh viªn n¨m thø hai ngµnh Th­ viÖn tr­êng Cao §¼ng S­ Ph¹m Trung ­¬ng” MA. minor thesis Field: English language teaching methodology Code: 601014 Supervisor: Nguyen Xuan Thom, PhD Hanoi, 2007 Acknowledgements First of all, I’d like to express my deepest gratitude to my supervisor, Dr. Nguyen Xuan Thom who gave me valuable suggestions, insightful discussions and immeasurable support and encouragements in the development and completion of this study. I gratefully acknowledge all those whose works which are referred to in this study. In particular, I would like to thank Dr.To Thu Huong for her lectures and advice that helped shaping my thinking on this subject matter. My special thanks go to all the lecturers of the Postgraduate Department at the College of Foreign Languages, Vietnam National University, Hanoi for their useful lectures and guidance during the course. I also wish to thank all my colleagues and my dear students at the National Teachers Training College for their participation, assistance and support for this thesis. ABSTRACT This study is intended to deal with one of the problems in teaching English for the students of library study at the National Teachers Training college (NTTC): That’s the shortage of an appropriate ESP syllabus for the students of library study when they take the ESP course. Thus, this study aims at designing an appropriate, practical, feasible and also enjoyable ESP syllabus for the students of library study to facilitate the process of teaching and learning ESP. The study consists of three main parts: Introduction, Development and Conclusion. The first part: Introduction discusses the rationale, aim and objectives, scope, methods and design of the study. The second part of the study contains three chapters. Chapter one is devoted to the theoretical background of the study. Chapter two is the investigation into some textbooks relating to library study. The next chapter deals with methodology of the study, data collection, findings and discussion and the proposed syllabus for the target students based on the previous chapters. The last part of the study is a summary of the study including the conclusion of the study, limitations of the study as well as suggestions for further study. It is hoped that the results of the study can be helpful to those who are in charge of teaching ESP for students of library study at NTTC in particular and those who are interested in teaching and designing appropriate syllabuses for their target students in general. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS NTTC : National Teachers’ Training College ESP : English for Specific Purposes GE : General English ELS : English for Library Study SLS : Students of library study List of figures and tables Figure 1. Types of ESP ………………………………………………………………..……………..5 Figure2: Bases for language syllabus design ………………………………...………………………9 Figure 3 : Cohesive devices……………………………………………………..…………………..18 Figure 4 : Organization of information…………………………………………………...…………20 Table 1: Terms and acronyms in the selected texts………………………………….....…...………56 Table 2: Prefixes and suffixes in texts related to library study………….………………………….56 Table 3: Simple vs. complex sentences……………………………………………………………..56 Table 4: Active vs. passive sentences……………………………………………………………….56 Table 5: The teachers’ ranking of the objectives in the ESP reading course……….……………….57 Table 6: Teachers’ ranking topics relating to library study……………………………………...57,58 Table 7: English teachers’ ranking of Grammar and structures needed to be included in the syllabus……………………………………………………………………………………………...58 Table 8: Teachers’ ranking of reading skills and language exercises…………………………...59,60 Table 9: English teachers’ ranking of language tasks………………………………………………61 Table 10 The students’ expectations in the ESP reading course…………………………………... 62 Table 11: Students’ ranking topics relating to library study………………………………………..63 Table 12 : Students’ ranking of reading skills and language exercises………………………….64,65 Table 13 : The proposed ESP reading syllabus for library study at NTTC……………………..34-38 Table of content Acknowledgements Abstract List of abbreviations List of figures and tables PART I: INTRODUCTION…………….......………...........………..………………...…. 1 1. Rationale…………………………………........…………..........……..……………...….1 2. Aims and Objectives…………………………........…….…...........………………....…..2 3. Research questions…………………………………......……...........……………...…….2 4. Scope of the Study…………………………………….…………...........………....…….2 5. The significance of the study…………………………….…………...........……....…….2 6. Methods of study…………………………………………......…………..............………3 7. Design of the study…………………………………………..………………..............…3 PART II: DEVELOPMENT………………………….…………..........……..............…….4 CHAPTER I: LITERATURE REVIEW………………………………..……..............……4 1.1. An overview of ESP………………………………………………......…..............……4 1.1.1. Definitions of ESP………………………………………………........................……4 1.1.2. Types of ESP……………………………………………….............….…..............…5 1.1.3. Terminology…………………………………………………….................................6 1.1.3.1. Definition of terminology……………………………………………..............…....6 1.1.3.2. Classifications of terminology…………………………………..............….............6 1.1.3.2.1. Single terms……………………………………....................……………………6 1.1.3.2.2. Compound terms………………………………………….........…...…………... 6 1.1.3.3. Characteristics of terminology…………………………………................………..6 1.1.3.3.1. Accuracy……………………………………………...........………….........…….6 1.1.3.3.2. Systematicity……………………………………………..............…………........6 1.1.3.3.3. Internationality……………………………………….............…...……………...7 1.1.4. Acronyms………………………………………………………................………….7 1.2. Current views on syllabus design………………....……………………………........…7 1.2.1. Definition of syllabus………………………….…………………….......…………..7 1.2.2 Task, Function, Activity and Exercise…………………………………........………..8 1.2.3. Types of ESP syllabus………………………………………….……............………9 1.2.3.1. Language form syllabuses (Structural/ grammatical syllabus).................................9 1.2.3.2. Notional- functional syllabuses...............................................................................10 1.2.3.3. Situational Syllabuses..............................................................................................10 1.2.3.4. Topic - based syllabuses..........................................................................................10 1.2.3.5. Skill-based syllabuses..............................................................................................11 1.2.3.6. Task-based syllabuses.............................................................................................11 1.2.3.7. Communicative syllabuses......................................................................................11 1.2.3.8. Audio-lingual syllabuses.........................................................................................12 1.2.3.9. Analytic syllabuses..................................................................................................12 1.2.4. Approaches to language syllabus design....................................................................12 1.2.4.1. Language - centered approach...............................................................................12 1.2.4.2. Skills- centered approach........................................................................................12 1.2.4.3. Learning- centered approach...................................................................................13 1.2.5. Stages in syllabus design............................................................................................13 1.2.5.1. Needs Analysis (NA)................................................................................ ..............13 1.2.5.2. Aims and objectives setting.....................................................................................15 1.2.5.3. Selecting content.....................................................................................................15 Integrating tasks, grammatical and notional components........................................15 1.2.5.5. Grading content.......................................................................................................15 CHAPTER 2: INVESTIGATION INTO TEXTBOOKS RELATED TO LIBRARY STUDY.................................................................................................................................17 3.1. Topics............................................................................................................................17 3.2. Terminology and acronyms...........................................................................................18 3.3. Cohesion........................................................................................................................18 3.4. Grammatical structures..................................................................................................19 3.4.1. Words.........................................................................................................................19 3.4.2. Sentences....................................................................................................................19 3.4.2.1. Simple and complex sentences................................................................................19 3.4.2.2. Active vs. passive sentences....................................................................................20 3.4.3. Text............................................................................................................................ 20 3.4.3.1. Organization of information....................................................................................20 3.4.3.2. Making a definition or explanation.........................................................................21 3.4.3.1. Some other characteristics.......................................................................................21 Summary..............................................................................................................................22 Chapter 3: RESULTS AND ANALYSIS OF DATA COLLECTION................................23 3.1 METHODOLOGY...............................................................................................................23 3.1.1. Situational factors......................................................................................................23 3.1.1.1. Institutional factor..................................................................................................23 3.1.1.2. Teacher factor ( Teachers of English at NTTC).....................................................23 3.1.1.3. Students factor (Students of library study)................................... .........................23 3.1.1.4. The teaching and learning English at NTTC..........................................................24 3.1.2. Subjects of the study...................................................................................................25 3.1.3. Instruments for collecting data...................................................................................25 3.1.3.1. Questionnaires.........................................................................................................25 3.2. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS OF DATA COLLECTION.................. ..............................................26 3.2.1. Needs perceived by the English teachers...................................................................26 3.2.1.1. Section 1: The teachers’ attitude towards ESP reading course for the second year students of library study and the objectives perceived by them...........................................26 3.2.1.2. Section II: English teachers’ and subject teachers’ opinions on needed topics......27 3.2.1.3. Section III: Grammar and structures needed to be included in the syllabus...........27 3.2.1.4. Section IV: English teachers’ ranking of reading skills, language exercises and language tasks needed to be included in the syllabus.............. ...........................................28 3.2.2. Needs perceived by the second year students of library study at NTTC...................28 3.2.2.1.Section I: The students’ attitude towards ESP reading course................................ 28 3.2.2.2. Section II: Needed topics perceived by the students...............................................29 3.2.2.3. Section III: Students’ ranking of reading skills, language exercises and language tasks needed to be included in the syllabus..........................................................................29 3.3. DESIGNING AN ESP READING SYLLABUS FOR THE SECOND YEAR STUDENTS OF LIBRARY STUDY AT NTTC........................................................................................................................30 3.3.1. Selecting the type of ESP syllabus............................................................................30 3.3.2. Aims and objectives of the reading syllabus ............................................................31 3.3.3. The selection and gradation of content in the syllabus..............................................31 3.3.3.1 Topics in the syllabus......................................................................... .....................31 3.3.3.2. Reading skills and exercises...................................................................................32 3.3.3.3. Language tasks........................................................................................................33 3.3.3.4. Grammar and structures..........................................................................................33 3.3.4. The proposed reading syllabus for the target students...............................................33 3.3.4.1. Time schedule..........................................................................................................33 3.3.3.4.2. The organization of the syllabus..........................................................................33 Summary..............................................................................................................................39 PART III: CONCLUSION..................................................................................................40 REFERENCES..................................................................................................................42 APPENDIXES...................................................................................................................46 APPENDIX 1......................................................................................................................46 APPENDIX 2......................................................................................................................51 APPENDIX 3.....................................................................................................................52 APPENDIX 4: Tables........................................................................................................56 PART I: INTRODUCTION 1. Rationale The National Teachers’ Training College (NTTC) used to be the National College for Early Childhood Teachers No1. Thus, library study is a new field of study at the college. There have been students of library study since 2004. Although English has been taught at NTTC since 1990 and English is a compulsory subject, ESP is only taught for students of library study and computer science students. At the NTTC students take the General English (GE) course with 150 periods. After finishing their GE course students of library will take the ESP course of 60 periods. According to the training curriculum, the ESP is to be delivered in the third semester of the second year after two semesters of GE. The reading texts used for the ESP course are selected by the teachers of the English section from different sources and they use them as syllabus to plan the lessons. Since ESP has been a part of English teaching at the NTTC, there has never been an official guidance or any suggestions for the ESP teachers. Those who are responsible for teaching ESP for students of library study often choose the parts from their own sources, which they personally think, are important and appropriate for their learners without any investigation into the factors concerning ESP theories as well as the learners’ need or target situation. As a result, consideration for students’ need, the aim and objectives of the ESP course is nowhere to stay but is subjected to teachers’ subjective options. It is clear that a syllabus contributes to the success and fulfills the objectives of an English course. A syllabus is an integral component in the process of the course design. Hutchinson and Waters (1987, p.83-84) explain why we should have a syllabus by identifying the roles of a syllabus. The syllabus, defining the constituent parts of language knowledge is a practical basis for the division of assessment, textbooks and learning time. Apart from its practical benefits, a syllabus gives more support to the teachers and learners in that it makes the language-learning tasks appear manageable. A syllabus is an implicit statement of view on the nature of what is taken to be the most important aspect of language learning. A syllabus then tells the teacher and the student not only what to be learned but also why it is to be learned. The shortage of an appropriate syllabus for the second year students of library study at the NTTC is a big and urgent question, waiting to be answered. And it is of great necessity and significance to both teachers who are teaching ESP and students of library study. This is the reason why the topic “Designing an ESP syllabus for the second year students of library study at the NTTC” is the subject matter chosen for my thesis. 2. Aims and Objectives The study aims at designing an appropriate ESP syllabus for the second year students of library study at the NTTC. To achieve this aim, three objectives are set to be obtained.  To develop a theoretical framework related to an ESP syllabus design. ‚ To conduct a Needs Analysis to identify the students’ learning situation, the learning needs perceived by the teachers who are responsible for the ESP course, subject teachers, and the second year students of library study. ƒ To propose an appropriate ESP syllabus for the target students based on the relevant theories and the Needs Analysis. 3. Research questions To attain these above aims and objectives the following research questions are raised:  What are the students’ learning needs and target needs? ‚ What should be included in the syllabus? The answer to these question help to develop an appropriate ESP syllabus for the second year students of library study at NTTC. 4. Scope of the Study The study limits itself to design an ESP reading syllabus for the
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