Luận án Sustainable tourism development in phu tho province

1. The necessity of the thesis Tourism is a rapidly growing industry and has become one of the leading economies of many localities and countries in the world nowadays. In Vietnam, the Party and State affirmed the objective of developing tourism into a spearhead economic sector of the country, promulgating a number of guidelines, policies, orientations and consistent solutions throughout the years to achieve this goal. With its geographic location and diverse potentials, especially special human tourism resources, it is associated with the cultural heritages of the Hung Vuong (in which two heritages recognized by UNESCO as the intangible cultural heritage of mankind.), and many natural tourism resources, Phu Tho has many advantages and conditions for tourism development. In recent years, Phu Tho has made efforts to develop tourism with the goal of making tourism become a spearhead economic sector of the province and has achieved certain results. However, the development of tourism in Phu Tho is not commensurate with its potential and still has many limitations. In particular, tourism activities in Phu Tho province are showing some issues from the perspective of sustainable development: the growth of the tourism industry is not strong, not catching and taking advantage of good opportunities of comprehensive integration of Vietnam with the world economy; Tourism activities cause much negative impact on tourism resources, natural and society environment, to the preservation and promotion of tangible and intangible cultural values; Some negative externalities from tourism to the community. The limitations and weaknesses directly affect on tourism development in Phu Tho province both in the immediate as well as in the long term. Faced with that situation, the research topic "Sustainable tourism development in Phu Tho Province" was chosen to be really meaningful both in theory and practice

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HO CHI MINH NATIONAL ACADEMY OF POLITICS DUONG HOANG HUONG SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN PHU THO PROVINCE SUMMARY OF THE PHD THESIS FIELD OF STUDY: DEVELOPMENT ECONOMY Code: 62 31 01 05 HANOI - 2017 The thesis is completed at the Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics Supervisor: Assoc.Prof. Dr. Nguyen Thi Huong Reviewer 1: .................................................... Reviewer 2: ................................................... Reviewer 3: ................................................... The thesis will be defended in front of the Thesis Committee at Academy level, at the Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics At hour date month year 2017 The thesis can be found at the National Library and the Library of Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics 1 INTRODUCTION 1. The necessity of the thesis Tourism is a rapidly growing industry and has become one of the leading economies of many localities and countries in the world nowadays. In Vietnam, the Party and State affirmed the objective of developing tourism into a spearhead economic sector of the country, promulgating a number of guidelines, policies, orientations and consistent solutions throughout the years to achieve this goal. With its geographic location and diverse potentials, especially special human tourism resources, it is associated with the cultural heritages of the Hung Vuong (in which two heritages recognized by UNESCO as the intangible cultural heritage of mankind.), and many natural tourism resources, Phu Tho has many advantages and conditions for tourism development. In recent years, Phu Tho has made efforts to develop tourism with the goal of making tourism become a spearhead economic sector of the province and has achieved certain results. However, the development of tourism in Phu Tho is not commensurate with its potential and still has many limitations. In particular, tourism activities in Phu Tho province are showing some issues from the perspective of sustainable development: the growth of the tourism industry is not strong, not catching and taking advantage of good opportunities of comprehensive integration of Vietnam with the world economy; Tourism activities cause much negative impact on tourism resources, natural and society environment, to the preservation and promotion of tangible and intangible cultural values; Some negative externalities from tourism to the community... The limitations and weaknesses directly affect on tourism development in Phu Tho province both in the immediate as well as in the long term. Faced with that situation, the research topic "Sustainable tourism development in Phu Tho Province" was chosen to be really meaningful both in theory and practice. 2. Objectives and tasks of the research 2.1. Objectives of the research On the basis of clarifying theory of sustainable tourism development at the provincial level, the thesis assesses the current status of tourism 2 activities and proposes directions, solutions for sustainable tourism development in Phu Tho province to 2030. 2.2. Tasks of the research - To systematize and contribute to further clarify the theoretical basis for sustainable tourism development at provincial level; - To study the experiences from some models of sustainable and unsustainable tourism development in some countries, regions and some localities in order to draw lessons for tourism development at the provincial level; - To analyze and assess the current status of tourism development in Phu Tho since 2006 on the basis of theory of sustainable tourism development; - To propose orientations and solutions for sustainable tourism development in Phu Tho province by 2030. 3. Subjects and scope of the research 3.1. Research subjects: The dissertation focuses on theoretical issues on sustainable tourism development, practices and solutions for sustainable tourism development at provincial level. 3.2. Research scope - In term of content: + To research on concepts, characteristics, roles, contents, criteria and factors affecting the sustainable development of provincial tourism; Domestic and international experience to draw lessons for provincial level; + To analysis and assess of sustainable tourism development in Phu Tho province; + To propose targets, orientations and solutions for tourism development in Phu Tho province by 2030. - In term of space: To develop sustainable tourism in Phu Tho province. - In term of time: To study the current status of tourism activities from 2006 to present; To build targets, orientations and solutions for sustainable tourism development in Phu Tho province by 2030. 4. Theoretical ground and research’s methods 4.1. Theoretical ground: Marxism-Leninism; Ho Chi Minh Thought; viewpoints and guidelines of the Party and State; Based on the theories of 3 development economics, tourism economics, sustainable development, economic management, macroeconomics, microeconomics... and inherit selectively the research’s result on related issues to the thesis’ content. 4.2. Research methodology: The author uses the dialectic and historical materialism of Marxism-Leninism and specific research methods: systematization method; Method of analysis and synthesis; methods of forecasting, survey, and interview. The above methods are flexible, interwoven, combining to promote the integrated effect towards the completion of research objectives. 5. New contributions of the thesis - To contribute to the system, supplement the theory of sustainable tourism development at provincial level; - To draw experience from a number of specific tourism development models; - To clarify the reality of tourism development in Phu Tho province according to the contents and criteria of sustainable tourism development; to propose targets, orientations and solutions for sustainable tourism development in Phu Tho province by 2030. The dissertation can be a useful reference for Phu Tho province in developing and organizing the implementation of local tourism development planning; it can also be used as a reference for researchers in the field of sustainable tourism development. 6. Structure and content of the thesis In addition to the preamble, conclusion, list of works published by the author relating to the thesis, list of references and appendix, the thesis consists of 4 chapters, 12 sections. Chapter 1: Literature review of the research related to the topic Chapter 2: Theoretical and practical grounds for sustainable tourism development at provincial level Chapter 3: The situation of sustainable tourism development in Phu Tho province Chapter 4: Orientations and solutions for sustainable tourism development in Phu Tho province 4 Chapter 1 LITERATURE REVIEW OF THE RESEARCHES RELATED TO THE TOPIC In this chapter, the thesis summarizes the situation and some works related to thesis in two groups: 1. International studies on sustainable tourism development; 2. Domestic studies on sustainable tourism development. In each group, the thesis summarizes the research situation in two main directions: - Theoretical studies on sustainable tourism development; - Studies on specific aspects of sustainable tourism development, experiences and practical solutions for sustainable tourism development (including: Study on the relationship between tourism resources and sustainable tourism development. Research on some forms and directions for sustainable tourism development, and research on specific experiences and solutions for sustainable tourism development. From the general overview and summary of some researches on sustainable tourism development, Chapter 1 gives some general comments on the researches on sustainable tourism development. : - Many researches on sustainable tourism development come from the perspective of sustainable development in general to form the argument for sustainable tourism development. Therefore, the general principles, the pillars of sustainable development (economic, cultural - social and environmental) are also reflected in the framework of sustainable tourism development. - Theoretical perspectives on sustainable tourism development have gradually come to the most general point of view on large and overarching issues. - National research projects on sustainable tourism development are accessible, presented in the fields of economic management, environmental economics, natural resources, environment and culture. Research projects approach the issue of sustainable tourism development from the perspective of economic development is not much. From these grounds, Chapter 1 of the thesis identifies gaps need to be further studied: 5 Firstly, there are still inconsistent views on the concept, content, criteria and factors that affect sustainable tourism development. Because of the different approaches that lead to different manifestations of content, evaluation criteria and factors that influence sustainable tourism development. Secondly, how correlated is the "mix" or "rational balance" between economic, social and environmental factors in sustainable tourism development that has not been thoroughly analyzed in term of general theoretical. In order to develop sustainable tourism that is practically feasible, this issue needs to be further researched, linked to space, time and specific conditions in which the theory of sustainable tourism development will be applied. Thirdly, researches on theoretical of sustainable tourism development approaches and analyzes research issues in terms of the goals to be addressed, requirements and principles of development in terms of economic management. There has not been a research that approached and analyzed in theoretical analysis to clarify the content, especially the characteristics of sustainable tourism development. Fourthly, the system of criteria for assessment of sustainable tourism development is not consistent, and it is difficult to concretize into sustainable tourism development criteria that can be applied in practice; There are no studies analyzing and proposing a set of criteria to assess sustainable tourism development in accordance with the conditions of tourism development, capacity of analysis and evaluation of provincial level. Fifthly, there is no research at the doctoral level, from the perspective of economic development in sustainable tourism development in Phu Tho province - with specific characteristics of natural, cultural and social conditions. Therefore, the topic does not overlap with published research at national and international levels. Based on the selection of published research results, the dissertation aims to the contents: - In term of theory To systematize and propose concepts, contents and criteria for sustainable tourism development at provincial level; to analyze characteristics and role of sustainable tourism development; to analyze factors influencing tourism development at the provincial level; 6 - In term of practice + To study experiences of building sustainable and unsustainable tourism development models in some countries, territories, some localities and tourist resorts in the country and drawing reference values for sustainable tourism development in the province. + To analyze and evaluate the current status of tourism development in Phu Tho province on the basis of general theories on sustainable tourism development; to indicate the results, limitations and causes of limitations in tourism development in Phu Tho province from the perspective of sustainable development; To analyze the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges of Phu Tho for sustainable tourism development; + To proposed orientations and solutions to develop sustainable tourism in Phu Tho province in the coming years. Chapter 2 THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL GROUND ON SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN PROVINCIAL LEVEL 2.1. CONCEPTS, CHARACTERISTICS AND ROLE OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT 2.1.1. Concept of sustainable development and sustainable tourism development 2.1.1.1. Concept of sustainable development The dissertation outlines process of forming different definitions and concept of sustainable development, to propose the concept of sustainable development as follows: "Sustainable development is the development of sustainable economic growth. At the same time, to promote social progress and equality, and to base on the rational exploitation and use of resources of natural resources, prevention, and treatment and effective control environmental pollution and the development of renewable resources ". Sustainable development consists of three basic pillars: Sustainable economic growth; Sustainable economic growth while promoting progress and social justice; Sustainable economic growth on the basis of the rational exploitation and use of resources of natural resources, prevention, treatment and effective control environmental pollution and the development of renewable resources. 7 2.1.1.2. Concept of sustainable tourism development - Concept of tourism and tourism development On the basis of an overview of the concepts and definitions of tourism in the published works and to add some new points to the tourism approach as an economic branch, the thesis gives the definition as follows: "Tourism is an economic sector which includes the organization of tourism, production, exchange of goods and services of businesses and people, to meet the needs of travelling, staying, eating, entertaining, learning and other tourist needs. Such activities must bring about economic, political and social benefits for localities, tourism, businesses and people themselves." From the concept of tourism and economic development in general, the thesis gives the definition of tourism development: "Tourism development is an increase in income, scale of tourism along with the change of quality and structure of the tourism industry towards progress and efficiency. To develop tourism to better meet the needs of tourists, bring about higher economic, political and social efficiency and expand the benefits for the localities, tourist countries, enterprises and people themselves ". - The concept of sustainable tourism development Based on the concepts of tourism development and sustainable development, sustainable tourism development, the thesis introduces concept of sustainable tourism development in accordance with provincial level as follows: " Sustainable tourism development is the development to achieve sustainable economic growth of the tourism industry, while promoting progress and social justice associated with preserving and promoting indigenous cultural values, to protect natural resources, to develop renewable resources and to protect the ecological environment. " Sustainable tourism development consists of 3 main pillars (contents): sustainable economic growth of the tourism sector; to achieve sustainable economic growth while promoting progress and social justice, which are closely associated with the preservation and promotion of indigenous cultural values; Sustainable growth is associated with the protection of natural resources, development of renewable resources and protection of the ecological environment. 8 2.1.2. Characteristics and role of sustainable tourism development 2.1.2.1. Characteristics of sustainable tourism development Firstly, sustainable tourism development is a controlled development in terms of economic and quality assurance. Secondly, the mode of development aims to balance and harmonize economic, social and environmental aspects, between objectives, short- term and long-term benefits in the development process. Thirdly, in developing sustainable tourism, protecting tourism resources, protecting the environment is a foundation, a solution, and a goal of development. Fourthly, sustainable tourism development requires high demands for responsibility and equity on the part of the stakeholders involved in tourism activities. Fifthly, sustainable tourism development is based on appropriate principles, which are thoroughly mastered and strictly adhered to in the development process. 2.1.2.2. The role of sustainable tourism development Firstly, sustainable tourism development contributes significantly to local and national sustainable economic development. Secondly, sustainable tourism contributes positively to achievement of the goal of socio-political stability and increasing social progress, preserving and celebrating the traditional cultural values of the locality. Thirdly, sustainable tourism development facilitates and contributes positively to the protection and development of natural resources and environment. Fourthly, sustainable tourism development contributes to enhance international integration capacity for localities and the country. 2.2. CONTENT AND CRITERIA FOR SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT ASSESSMENT 2.2.1. Content of sustainable tourism development 2.2.1.1. Sustainable economic growth of the tourism industry This content is expressed through the following aspects: Firstly, it is the increase in added value of the local tourism industry in a reasonably and stable way in the long term. Secondly, economic growth of the tourism industry is increasingly high on the basis of exploitation and effective use of development resources. 9 Thirdly, economic growth is linked to a shift in the economic structure of tourism in direction of efficiency and promotion of the local economic structure towards industrialization and modernization. Fourthly, economic growth associated with quality meets the needs of increasing tourists. 2.2.1.2. Sustainable economic growth while promoting progress and social justice that linked to the preservation and promotion of indigenous cultural values This is the second pillar of sustainable tourism development in the locality and it is reflected in the following key aspects: Firstly, economic growth of tourism industry must simultaneously create employment opportunities, increase income for laborers and people, and actively contribute to poverty alleviation. Secondly, the growth of participatory tourism industry, creating opportunities for the community and not increase social injustice and social problems. Thirdly, sustainable economic growth of tourism industry is associated with the preservation and promotion of local cultural values. 2.2.1.3. Sustainable economic growth is associated with the protection of natural resources, development of renewable resources and protection of the ecological environment This is the third important pillar of sustainable tourism development in any locality and to be concretized in following aspects: Firstly, to exploit and use rational natural tourist resources of the locality. Secondly, to exploit and use associated with protection of natural tourism resources and ecological environment. 2.2.2. Criteria for assessing sustainable tourism development From analysis of sustainable tourism development’s contents, the thesis proposes a set of criteria to assess sustainable tourism development in line with the content of sustainable tourism development in real conditions of the provincial level in Vietnam. - Criteria for assessing sustainable economic growth (1) Growth rate of revenue, value added growth of tourism: Not less than 7% / year, stable, continuous no less than 5 year
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