The quantitative method is used including two questionnaires, one for the teachers and the other for the students

Nowadays, English has played an important role in our life. It is broadly used in many different fields of life such as sports, politics, economy, science, technology Therefore, teaching and learning English have become a necessity in every country. In Vietnam, in the recent years, English have been gaining significance because firstly it is an international language, secondly it is an effective means to intensify mutual understandings and cooperation between Vietnam and other countries. As a result, there has been an explosion in teaching and learning English. It is taught not only at schools but also at many foreign language centers. In an industrialized and modernized society, communicative competence in English is very important. For high school leavers, this competence can help them find a good job in a foreign company or do an oversea job. Besides, when they graduate from universities with good results and have a good communicative competence in English, they will havea great deal of chances to be offered a good job with a high salary and position in a both state and private company. Moreover, high school leavers who can speak English well can be able to get a scholarship in a university in Britain, the USA, Australia, Canada, etc. Therefore, it is obvious that being able to speak English well will bring about a better career. At K.T.H.S, like at many other high schools in Vietnam, English has been a compulsory subject in its curriculum for many yearsand the speaking skill is one of five official parts in a unit. However, due to the demand of the high school graduation and university entrance examinations, the students’ focus is on grammar and vocabulary which means little attention has been paid to the speaking skill. For these above reasons, the researcher has decidedto choose this thesis to increase the English speaking ability of students. There are many ways of gaining this aim and using the teaching aids is one of the effective ways to intensify students’ participation in speaking activities.

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1 PART A. INTRODUCTION This part presents the rationale, the aims, the method, the scope and the design of the study. 1. Rationale of the study Nowadays, English has played an important role in our life. It is broadly used in many different fields of life such as sports, politics, economy, science, technology… Therefore, teaching and learning English have become a necessity in every country. In Vietnam, in the recent years, English have been gaining significance because firstly it is an international language, secondly it is an effective means to intensify mutual understandings and cooperation between Vietnam and other countries. As a result, there has been an explosion in teaching and learning English. It is taught not only at schools but also at many foreign language centers. In an industrialized and modernized society, communicative competence in English is very important. For high school leavers, this competence can help them find a good job in a foreign company or do an oversea job. Besides, when they graduate from universities with good results and have a good communicative competence in English, they will have a great deal of chances to be offered a good job with a high salary and position in a both state and private company. Moreover, high school leavers who can speak English well can be able to get a scholarship in a university in Britain, the USA, Australia, Canada, etc. Therefore, it is obvious that being able to speak English well will bring about a better career. At K.T.H.S, like at many other high schools in Vietnam, English has been a compulsory subject in its curriculum for many years and the speaking skill is one of five official parts in a unit. However, due to the demand of the high school graduation and university entrance examinations, the students’ focus is on grammar and vocabulary which means little attention has been paid to the speaking skill. For these above reasons, the researcher has decided to choose this thesis to increase the English speaking ability of students. There are many ways of gaining this aim and using the teaching aids is one of the effective ways to intensify students’ participation in speaking activities. 2 2. The aims of the study This study is aimed at: • Investigating the current situation of teaching and learning speaking English at K.T.H.S. • Investigating the situation of using teaching aids of the teachers in teaching speaking English at K.T.H.S. • Investigating students’ attitudes towards using teaching aids in speaking English class at K.T.H.S • Suggesting the techniques of using teaching aids (objects, pictures, sub-boards, handouts, gestures, cassette players, PowerPoint) to intensify students’ participation in speaking activities at K.T.H.S. 3. The method of the study In the study, the quantitative method is used including two questionnaires, one for the teachers and the other for the students. The questionnaire for the teachers is to find out the current situation of teaching speaking English, and the situation of using teaching aids of the teachers in teaching speaking English at K.T.H.S. The questionnaire for the students includes two parts, the first is carried out to find out the current situation of learning speaking English at K.T.H.S and the second is administered after three sample lessons using some kinds of teaching aids to find out students’ attitudes towards using teaching aids in speaking English class at K.T.H.S. 4. The scope of the study There are many ways to intensify students’ participation in speaking activities. However, in this study the researcher only focuses on using some types of teaching aids (objects, pictures, sub-boards, handouts, gestures, cassette players, PowerPoint) to intensify the 10 grade students’ participation in speaking activities at K.T.H.S. 5. The design of the study The study is divided into three parts: Part A presents a general introduction of the study including the rationale, the aims, the method, the scope and the design of the study. Part B presents the development of the study including four chapters. Chapter 1 mentions the theoretical background of the research with the focus on the following points: 3 definition of speaking, the importance of speaking, definition of teaching aids, types of teaching aids, the purposes of teaching aids, the advantages and disadvantages of using teaching aids, the principles of using teaching aids, and some items used as teaching aids in speaking class. Chapter 2 involves the information of learners and their background, materials and facilities at K.T.H.S. Chapter 3 presents the methodology and data analysis. Chapter 4 mentions the findings and the suggested techniques for using teaching aids in process of teaching speaking. Part C is the conclusion of the study. It gives the limitations of the study and some suggestions for further researches. 4 PART B. DEVELOPMENT CHAPTER 1 LITERATURE REVIEW In order to fulfill the study, relevant theoretical concepts are presented: definition of speaking, the importance of speaking, definition of teaching aids, types of teaching aids, the purposes of using teaching aids, advantages and disadvantages of using teaching aids, the principles of using teaching aids, suggesting some items used as teaching aids in speaking class. 1.1. Nature of speaking 1.1. 1. Definition of speaking Speaking is one of four necessary skills to use a language successfully. According to Chaney (1998:13), speaking is “the process of building and sharing meaning through the use of verbal and non- verbal symbols, in a variety of contexts” (as cited in Kayi, 2006). Speaking is not a sudden speech. Speakers have to consider using the suitable verbal or non- verbal symbols to create the valuable utterances. And it is not easy for hearers to understand speakers’ implication if speakers do not put their utterances into the concrete contexts. According to Fowler & Thompson (2000), speaking is “the action of conveying information or expressing one’s thoughts and feelings in spoken language”. This definition shows that speaking is also a process because it contains speakers’ thoughts and feelings. However, speakers only use the verbal symbols to create utterances. Orwig (1999) also defines that speaking is the productive skill in the oral mode. It is complicated and involves more than just pronouncing words. In conclusion, speaking is the oral action which is prepared carefully before being uttered in a variety of contexts. It is difficult to understand an utterance if both speakers and hearers are not in the same context. 1.1.2. The importance of speaking. In recent years, communicative approach has become the main one in teaching and learning foreign languages. The ability to communicate in a second language “contributes to the success of the learner in school and later in every phase of life”(Kayi, 2006). Therefore, it can not be denied that speaking is very important. Bailey and Savage (1994: vii) define that “Speaking in a second or foreign language has often been viewed as the 5 most demanding of the four skills”. Teachers should pay great attention to teaching speaking. However, teaching speaking is not easy. Thus, a lot of studies relating speaking have been carried out to help learners speak with confidence. 1.2. Teaching aids 1.2.1. Definition of teaching aids With the growth of English teaching, more and more teaching resources and aids are developed. The use of teaching aids, therefore, becomes an important issue. Many studies have been carried out to find out the suitable ways to use teaching aids in the teaching and learning process. A plenty of teaching aids with high technology have been invented recently. Therefore, the effect of using teaching aids in education has been increased. Teaching aids have become an essential element of a lesson. So, what are teaching aids? Teaching aids are “any device, object, or machine used by a teacher to clarify or enliven a subject.” (Collins , 2000) Based on Farlex (2003 - 2008), teaching aids are materials and equipment which are used in teaching. According to Croket & Foster (2005), teaching aids are “items used in the classroom to aid teaching and training.” In brief, teaching aids are anything teachers use in teaching to gain their aims. Teachers should have expertise as well as interest to use teaching aids in their classes so as to make their teaching effective and facilitate learning to a considerable extent. 1.2.2. Types of teaching aids There are many different ways in which a teacher can make the learning experience more interesting and memorable for learners. One technique is to use teaching aids. Nowadays, teaching aids are widely used in teaching and learning. Depending on teachers’ aims, they can choose different kinds of teaching aids to enliven their lessons. There is a variety of teaching aids. However, they are often divided into three main kinds: visual aids, audio aids and audio- visual aids. According to Wright & Haleem (1991), visual aids are anything the learners can see used for different teaching purposes in a language class. Visual aids are simple teaching aids that include boards, pictures, objects, handouts, teacher’s and learner’s gestures, actions, and performance, etc. Visual aids can make presentations more interesting, more dynamic, and more effective if you use them right. 6 They can also be distracting, and they can undercut your message. Audio aids can be defined as “models and devices that can be heard and give an image of something, somebody, and some situations” ((Akanbi, 1988) as cited in Maniruzzaman, 2008). They include recorded materials, radios, cassette players, cassettes, etc. Audio- visual aids are combined between audio aids with visual aids. They are “devices that can be used in teaching for their appeal to the ear and the eye” (Gaunge, 2008). Botham (1969) shows that various types of audio- visual aids are considered: non-projected aids, projected aids, tape recorders and recording, and mass media and rural campaigns. Each aid is carefully described, with illustrations, and details are offered for effective presentation. Videotapes, films, and computer multimedia are typical types of audio- visual aids. 1.2.3. The purposes of using teaching aids Teaching and learning is a complex process. Maniruzzaman (2008) shows that to carry out their job successfully and ensure the learners’ maximal benefit, the teachers have to use teaching methods, techniques as well as materials in a manner that are consistent with the learners’ needs and interest. And the appropriate use of teaching aids can be substantially helpful in this aspect to make the teaching methods, techniques, and materials considerably effective and interesting, and to help the learners have maximum benefit ((Akanbi, 1988) as cited in Maniruzzaman, 2008). Teaching aids enable the teacher to modify the teaching method and techniques, change the classroom situation quickly. They also attract the learners’ attention, reduce their exhaustion, motivate them and increase their interaction and active participation in the learning process. To conclude, teaching aids are equipped to make the teaching and learning process more effectively. 1.2.4. Advantages and disadvantages of using teaching aids 1.2.4.1. Advantages of using teaching aids in teaching speaking Teaching aids are plentiful and each kind of teaching aids has its own advantages. In this study, the researcher gives some common advantages of using teaching aids. Firstly, using teaching aids is a means to motivate the students in speaking lessons. There are many ways to motivate the students and using teaching aids is an effective way. Depending on the speaking topics, the teachers can use different types of teaching aids in games such as: Cross-word, Bingo, Noughts and Crosses, etc to warm up the atmosphere of the class. Objects, pictures, cassette players are the most frequently used. Secondly, teaching aids are 7 the tool to suggest the speaking ideas. The students often have difficulty in brainstorming the speaking ideas. The teachers should use teaching aids to provide the language input (vocabulary items, structures) to help the students express their ideas. Finally, the teaching aid is a factor of interactions. Using teaching aids improves not only the students’ speaking ability but also their writing, reading, and listening competence. For example, cassette players can help the students listen and speak better. 1.2.4.2. Disadvantages of using teaching aids in teaching speaking Although using teaching aids in teaching speaking has many advantages, there are some disadvantages when using them. It can not be denied that the amounts of teaching aids for teaching and learning languages at high schools in Vietnam are limited. The teachers themselves must prepare most of teaching aids in advance. Besides, it is not difficult for the teachers to find the sources of teaching aids. However, making teaching aids costs the teachers a lot of money. For instance, teachers can exploit the pictures from internet, but in order to use them the teachers have to print them, or buy them from the bookshops. Moreover, it takes much time to use teaching aids in class if the teachers do not choose the suitable teaching aids for the lesson. Last but not least, management of a large class is another problem. When teaching speaking to such a large class, the teachers have to cope with the difficulty that is not only how to conduct the class (to reduce noise, to raise interest) in general, but also how to exploit the benefits of using teaching aids to the students in the learning process. 1.2.5. The principles of using teaching aids Teaching aids have many advantages. Using them appropriately will bring the high effect in the teaching and learning process and vice versa. Therefore, the teachers should pay attention to some principles when using them: 1. Find or make suitable teaching aids. 2. Experiment and practise with teaching aids so that you know how to use them. 3. Test them and revise them if necessary. 4. Remember to use them whenever they are appropriate. (Trudy, 1999) 1.2.6. Some items used as teaching aids in speaking class. There is a variety of teaching aids to use in the teaching and learning process. Each teaching aid has its own advantages and using it reasonably will help the teachers gain 8 their teaching aims. In this study, the researcher suggests using some kinds of teaching aids to intensify the students’ participation in speaking activities. 1.2.6.1. Sub-boards The simplest teaching aid of all is the board, black or white. It is used in all lessons by all the teachers. However, the teachers have to spend a lot of the class time writing on the board. There is not enough time for the students to practise speaking. Therefore, the researcher suggests that the teachers should use the sub-boards which are prepared at home to save time. The teachers can use the white large papers as the sub-boards, or the old posters which have a white side in stead so they can save money. The sub-boards can be used in all stages of the speaking lessons to play games such as: Noughts and Crosses, Cross-word to motivate the students, or to provide the students with the language input such as: new words, grammar structures, or examples. Sample: In Task 2 of Unit 12, due to the students’ limited words about music, the teachers should provide them with some new phrases before asking them to speak. It makes the students feel less difficult to do this task. Suggested words about music - rousing/ lyrical/ peaceful/ pleasant - help someone forget troubles - make someone excited/ feel relaxed Using the sub-boards is not only cheap, easy but also effective. It makes the difficult tasks become easier and the students will be confident to take part in them. 1.2.6.2. Pictures Pictures can be divided into wallpictures and wallposters, picture flash cards, word flash cards, workcards and worksheets, maps, plans, and charts. • Wallpictures and wallposters illustrate scenes, people, or objects and are large enough to be seen by all the students. • Flash cards are divided into two main kinds: picture flash cards and word flash cards. Picture flash cards are pictures mounted or drawn on cards approximately 15 cm by 20 cm. Word flash cards are words written on cards about 8 cm in height and are as long as is necessary. 9 • Workcards and worksheets: workcards (about 15 cm x 20 cm) and worksheets are for individual student use or for use by students working in small groups. They provide an extremely useful base for the development of four skills without the teachers’ immediate involvement. • Maps, plans, and charts are very useful for the statistics and analysis exercises. Generally, pictures are effectively used to motivate the students at the warm-up stage, to provide the language input such as: new vocabulary items to suggest the speaking ideas at the pre- speaking stage and the while- speaking stage. For example, to introduce the speaking topic in Unit 11 about the excursion to Huong Pagoda, a picture about Huong Pagoda is used to help students know some information about it. To use pictures more effectively, the teachers should make pictures in colour to attract the students. It is very easy to have beautiful pictures. They can be exploited from internet, text books, magazines, newspapers, business brochures, etc, or painted by the teachers. 1.2.6.3. Gestures According to Alton (2002), “A gesture is a form of non-verbal communication made with a part of the body, used instead of or in combination with verbal communication.” At K.T.H.S, the teachers always feel shy of using their gestures in class. In the researcher’s opinion, they are very useful and the students are excited with them. Gestures should be used to illustrate new words and phrases relating to the speaking topic in order to help the students have enough the language input for speaking. For instance, to help the students understand the meaning of the phrases “food poisoning”, “carsick” in Task 1 of Unit 11 10 and “keep someone happy”, “cheer someone up” in Task 1 of Unit 12, the best way is using gestures. 1.2.6.4. Objects There are two types of objects: Real objects and representational objects. Real objects are anything available in teaching such as tables, chairs, pens, books, hats, umbrellas, etc. Representational objects are models that can replace real objects which the teachers can not prepare for use in class. Using objects to motivate the students and introduce new vocabulary items at the warm-up and pre- speaking stages is interesting and effective. The teachers should prepare the objects at home. For example, to suggest the answer of the question “What do you have to prepare for an excursion?” at the warm- up stage of Unit 11, the teachers should give the real objects: bread, an orange, a bottle of water, a cucumber, an umbrella, a raincoat and the students feel easier to give the answer: food, fruits, drinks, vegetable, an umbrella, and a raincoat. Using objects not only makes the students interested in the topic but it also gives the students the new vocabulary items relating the excursion before speaking. 11 When the teachers display the objects, they must be large enough for the students to see. 1.2.6.5. Handouts Handouts are hard copy texts which support, expand
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