Tóm tắt Luận án Agricultural Economics Hai Duong province period 1883 - 1945

Folks have a saying: "Agriculture failure palsy technology department". That phrase suggests an important role, mainstream agricultural economy for economic development - society in general in our country. Therefore, the State authorities in the different historical periods are the guidelines, and policies to encourage agricultural development. In the process of ruling Vietnam, the French focused strongly on the field of agricultural economics. Especially after World War I, the agricultural sector was given top priority in the investment order. The mining colony of the French promoted the transformation of the agricultural economy of Vietnam, from an agricultural economy with the self- sufficient and closed nature, into an agriculture which initially had elements of the commodity economy, agricultural products had become commodities in the market.

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INTRODUCTION 1. Rationale Folks have a saying: "Agriculture failure palsy technology department". That phrase suggests an important role, mainstream agricultural economy for economic development - society in general in our country. Therefore, the State authorities in the different historical periods are the guidelines, and policies to encourage agricultural development. In the process of ruling Vietnam, the French focused strongly on the field of agricultural economics. Especially after World War I, the agricultural sector was given top priority in the investment order. The mining colony of the French promoted the transformation of the agricultural economy of Vietnam, from an agricultural economy with the self- sufficient and closed nature, into an agriculture which initially had elements of the commodity economy, agricultural products had become commodities in the market. Hai Duong Province is located in the central area of ​​the Red River delta, have great potential for economic development in agriculture. 8-1883, the French invaded the City East, put the domination and exploitation of economic power, labor exploitation, plunder the wealth and natural resources here to enrich the country. In particular, agriculture is the economic sector is the French focus on mining. The policy, mining policy and the implementation of agricultural policy of colonial government which led to the transformation of the agricultural sector of the provincial economy. The changes that have a profound impact to the economic situation - Hai Duong society colonial times. Therefore, the study of economic transformation agriculture Hai Duong province will contribute significantly to elucidate the nature of Vietnam's economy colonial times. At the same time, it also helps us to recognize fully and more deeply about the mining colony of French colonialism in our country. Second, agricultural economic research Hai Duong period 1883 - 1945se contribute restore agricultural painting colonial province. Through a comparison with the situation of agriculture in Hai Duong Nguyen dynasty domination will draw comments, reviews about the positives and limit the development of the agricultural economy and farmers' life time of Hai Duong Province fork. On that basis, assess objectively and comprehensively about the dominance of the French in the province of Hai Duong in particular and Vietnam in general. Third, over the past century, many scholars at home and abroad studies on issues of agricultural economics Vietnam and Indochina from the French colony until 1945 August Revolution in these aspects, Different disciplines. However, research on agricultural economics Hai Duong province colonial period (1883 - 1945), the work does not have a comprehensive presentation and systematic. Picture Hai Duong province agriculture this period remains an open question. Therefore, to clarify the issues surrounding the transformation of the agricultural economy in Hai Duong province colonial period significant in bridging the gap of the country's history in recent years Fourth, the lessons to be drawn from the study of agricultural economics Hai Duong colonial period will contribute effectively served, useful for the development of agricultural economy in Hai Duong province in the period today, Especially in the context of the Party and the Government were actively implementing the innovation of agriculture and rural areas. Fifth, the study of the subject will help clarify an important part of the history of early modern Hai Duong. From that provide the materials necessary to serve in the process of learning, research and teaching history in early modern Vietnam secondary schools, colleges and universities. For these reasons, the authors decided to select research subjects: "Agricultural Economics Hai Duong province period 1883 - 1945" do Dissertation. 2. Purpose and research tasks 2.1. Research purposes Through research on the agricultural economy of Hai Duong province colonial period (1883 - 1945), the thesis contributes a specific perspective, more comprehensive agricultural economy of the colonial period in North Delta. Based on that assessment in an objective, science on the effects of French colonial policy to the agricultural economy of Hai Duong and draw lessons for the work of construction, agricultural development , rural innovation and improve people's lives and contribute to successful implementation of the innovation of the Party and State. 2.2. The mission of the topics The thesis focuses on clarifying the following scientific problems: - Firstly, the thesis clarifies the factors that impact on the agricultural economy of Hai Duong province colonial period (1883 - 1945): natural conditions, economic conditions and social activities affecting production Hai Duong agriculture; economic situation of Hai Duong agriculture before becoming a French colony; the invasion and domination of Hai Duong province of the French; agricultural policy of colonial France. - Secondly, the thesis clarifies the status of agricultural economy of Hai Duong province colonial period and the changes in each period: the period 1883 - 1918 and the period 1919 - 1945 on the main aspects such as: agricultural land situation, relations of production, cultivation, crop structure and livestock, plantation economy. - Third, the thesis clarifies the economic impact of agriculture on the economy - society of Hai Duong province colonial period (1883-1945). From there, an objective assessment of the nature of French colonialism in Vietnam. Simultaneously draw practical lessons serve Three agricultural policy of the Party and our country. 3. Object and scope of the study 3.1. Research subjects The object of the dissertation research is agricultural economist Hai Duong province period 1883-1945. 3.2. Research scope - On time: The thesis focuses on the research of agricultural economy mainly in the provinces of Hai Duong time limit from when the French invaded the Hai Duong (19 - 8-1883) and start the process of setting the background colonial rule until the August Revolution in 1945 in Hai Duong success. - Space: The thesis studies limited scope mainly in Hai Duong province period of French domination and domination, based administrative boundaries are specified by the decree of the colonial administration. Specific administrative units in Hai Duong province colonial period including government, following districts: South Books; Kinh Mon; Ninh Giang; Binh Giang; Flexible spending; Thanh Ha; Kim Thanh; Cam Giang; Thanh Mien; Gia Loc; Autism; Vinh Bao; Dong Trieu. The province has a total of 117 and 1,013 communes, Hai Duong province. - The scope of content: The thesis focuses depth research in the field of basic agricultural economy of Hai Duong Province is planting and breeding, on the main aspects is the situation of land, plant structure and livestock, cultivation, production relations, ... 4. Resources and Research Methods 4.1. Resources The scientific problem of the dissertation was developed based on the extraction and processing at different levels of the following sources: - Source documents Party documents and the writings of the leaders of the Party and State (mainly pre-1945). - The material stored at the National Archives Center I, Vietnam National Library and libraries in Hai Duong province, including filings discuss agricultural issues in Hai Duong province, namely the Official documents of the colonial administration as edicts, decrees, documents, correspondence, ... especially the economic reports and political and social situation of Hai Duong envoy sent Mini Tonkin , the government authorities, district provincial government submissions and reports of Tonkin Phu Thong, Governor of Indochina; the statistical document, registration address, map, ... - The study was published containing content related to research-oriented approach and content research topics, including: monographs, reference books, textbooks, dissertations, theses projects, research, information published in newspapers and magazines. - The collected documents including conventions, newspaper clippings and documents contemporary fieldwork. This contributes to the material to provide specific information and details to the author solve the tasks of the thesis. 4.2. Research Methods In view of dialectical materialism and historical materialism of Marxism - Leninism, the views of the Party and Ho Chi Minh thought on issues of economic and social situation of Vietnam in the colonial period, the authors comment projects using research methods and interdisciplinary majors, which uses mainly two methods are essentially historical and logical method. In addition, open access research in the field of economy should also use the subject statistical methods, quantify, analyze, compare, 5. Contribution of the thesis - The thesis was restored for the first time in a relatively system, comprehensive agricultural economy colonial Hai Duong province. - On the basis of clarifying the evolution of the agricultural economy in Hai Duong province colonial times through two major phases period 1883 - 1918 and the period 1919 - 1945, the author has taken the identification, assessment the science on the status of the agricultural economy of Hai Duong province colonial period, especially on the specific agricultural policy of the colonial government adopted in Hai Duong. In addition, the thesis also clarified the economic impact of agriculture on the economy - society Hai Duong period. - The contents of the thesis helped fill a void studied local history Hai Duong and enrich the study of the problems of the modern history of Vietnam, especially economic problems of agriculture , the leading economic sectors in Vietnam's economic structure colonial period. Thesis content and system reference materials were collected during the study will be a valuable resource to serve the research and teaching history at the universities and colleges in general, schools in Hai Duong in particular and also serve the research and compilation of local history. - The scientific conclusions of the thesis and the research results have been published contributed serve the construction, agricultural development, rural innovation and improve people's lives. 6. Layout thesis Besides the introduction, conclusion and list of references and appendices, dissertation content consists of 5 chapters: Chapter 1: An overview about studying problems Chapter 2: Factors affecting the agricultural economy of Hai Duong Province in the period 1883 - 1945 Chapter 3: The agricultural economy of Hai Duong Province in the period 1883 - 1918 Chapter 4: the tranformations of the agricultural economy of Hai Duong Province between 1919 and 1945 Chapter 5: Characteristics and the impacts of agriculture on the socio-economic situation of Hai Duong Province in the period 1883 - 1945 Chapter 1 AN OVERVIEW ABOUT STUDYING PROBLEM 1.1. The work on economic and social Vietnam colonial times - The research policy: Since the beginning of the twentieth century to the present, researchers at home and abroad initially had different approaches with the aim of contributing to the economic outlook sketched and Vietnam colonial society fork. The typical study of this issue should include: Souvenirs de l'Annam Tonkin et du (Memories of Central America and North America origin) of J.Masson, de terre au Tonkin Les concessions (The allocation fields Land in North America) of J.Morel, La Formation des pays en Annamite sociales classes of A. Duymarret, Indochina of Ch. Robequain, exploitative tactics of the French in Vietnam's Nguyen Khac Dam, Vietnam during the French colonial Nguyen The Anh, Financiere et économique Presence La Francaise en Indochine (1859 - 1939) (The presence of financial and France's economy in Indochina (1859 - 1939)) of J.Aumiphin, economic structure - Vietnam Social colonial period (1858 - 1945) by Nguyen Van Khanh. - The papers, scientific journals: On the professional journals, researchers Nguyen Van Khanh have all: The social structure changes Vietnam from mid-nineteenth century to the August Revolution in 1945 "(NCLS , No. 4 in 1995). - Dissertation, thesis: In recent years there have been some approaches thesis in some research that the writer may acquire, learn and references: North America Domestic Trade thesis period 1919 - 1939 Author's Vu Thi Minh Huong, protected 2002 in Hai Duong Urban colonial period (1883-1945) of the author Pham Thi Tuyet, protected 2011 twelfth. The research on Vietnam's agricultural economy colonial - The study of Agriculture Vietnam colonial times were many researchers at home and abroad interested. Many projects were announced as: Le Tonkin en 1909 (North America 1909) of G.Dauphinot, Tonkin Aujourd'hui (Tonkin today) by Henry Cucherousset, Geography of the Northern provinces of Ngo Vi Lien, Le Tonkin (North America) of P. Gourou, Economie Agricole de l'Indochine (Indochina Agriculture) of Y.Henry, La Culture du riz dans le delta du Tonkin (plain rice cultivation in North America) by René Dumont, Farmers Tonkin delta of Pierre Gourou, Problems and peasants of Via Ninh Van Dinh, regimen over the situation of land and peasant life before the August Revolution Nguyen Kien Giang 1945, Private hydro draft history Vietnam benefits, Volume 1 of Phan Khanh, Plantation of French in North America from 1884 to 1918 vaViec ceded land reclamation in North America from 1919 to 1945 of Ta Thi Thuy, agricultural land situation and the life of farmers Truong Huu Quynh Nguyencua reign and Do Bang, agricultural credit history Vietnam (1875 - 1945) by Pham Quang Trung. The monographic works in agriculture Vietnam: Agricultural Structure and Civilization Vietnam rice farming rice and Vietnam's Bui Huy Dap, Agricultural History Vietnam Namcua Hong Dat Street. - The papers, scientific journals: Journal of Research suco Calendar entries such as: public land regime Tonkin under French domination Vu Huy Phuc (No. 88, 1966); On the issue of public land and private land in Vietnamese history Namcua Nguyen Khac Dam (No. 4, 1987); About elite French planters in North America in the period 1884 - 1896 of Ta Thi Thuy (5 + 6, 1988); Mining and land use of the French plantation in North America period 1884 - 1896 of Ta Thi Thuy (No. 2, 1991); A few thoughts on the rural northern delta from the perspective huucua basis Truong Huu Quynh (No. 4, 1993); The management of agricultural land and land transfer regulations of the French in North America (the late nineteenth century early twentieth century Ta Thi Thuy (11 + 12, 1995), Understanding the French tax system applicable Vietnam's French colonial period (1858 - 1945) of Ho Tuan Dung (No. 6, 2001); Plantation of French in North America from 1897 to 1945 Trung Tran Vu Resources (No. 10, 2006); Plantation French in Nam Dinh from 1884 to 1918 of Duong Van Khoa (No. 2, 2012); Owning land in Nam Dinh province from 1919 to 1945 of Duong Van Khoa (No. 8, 2014) etc ... - Dissertation, thesis: The thesis, dissertation on Vietnam's agricultural research that students can refer as typical: The changes in agricultural economics from 1884 to the North Central States 1945cua Tran Vu Resources (protection Protection in 2007), Agricultural Economics in Bac Giang Province from 1884 till 1945cua Do Van Chinh (protected in 2009), Agriculture Nam Dinh (1884-1945) by Duong Van Khoa (guard, 2012). 1.3. The study on the agricultural economy of Hai Duong province colonial period So far, no direct studies on the agricultural economy of Hai Duong province colonial period. The books, scientific journals, if so, ended up at a very narrow scope. Typical works: Notice sur les directement de Hai Duong circonscriptions dependent (Indication of the areas under the Hai Duong) and Notice sur les district de Cam Giang, Son Hiep, Kim Thanh et administratif de Yen Luu center, province de Hai Duong (Instructions on Cam Giang District, Hiep Son, Kim Thanh and Yen Luu administrative center, Hai Duong province) and dating to 1901, is currently being kept at the National Archives Center I, L'essor de la ville de Hai Duong 1923 - 1927 (Evolution of Hai Duong City from 1923 to 1927) of Alfred Bouchet, Geography Ngo Vi Lien Cam Giangcua, La province de Hai Duong (Hai Duong Province) of Deputy Envoy Dilleman , situation of each district, Hai Duong province in 1900 hosted at the Library of Hai Duong province, History revolutionary armed struggle Hai Duong town - Volume 1 (1930-1954), Hai Duong town history by Pham You Smell eds, History Hai Duong Provincial Party, Volume I, addresses Hai Duong, Volumes I and II. The Forum of Historical Research Journal, with the article: Change of land in the village of Mo Trach (Hai Duong) from the early nineteenth century to 1945 by Nguyen Van Khanh (No.1, 1998), Activities rice trading in Hai Duong city colonial period (1883 - 1945) the author Pham Thi Tuyet (No.10, 2014). 1.4. The issues raised need to continue research Based on study results legacy of scientists, based on the collected resources, especially storage resources, centralized research thesis and clarify Agricultural Economics Hai Duong province period 1883 - 1945 with the following specific contents: First, the study systematically the factors affecting the agricultural economy of Hai Duong province period 1883-1945. Second, the thesis should outline the economic picture agriculture Hai Duong province colonial period and the changes in phases: phase 1883 - 1918 and the period 1919 - 1945 on the main aspects such as: Agricultural land situation, relations of production, cultivation, crop structure and livestock, plantation economy. Third, the thesis should clarify the economic impact of agriculture on the economy - society Hai Duong province period 1883-1945. On that basis, assess objectively and comprehensively about the dominance of the French in the province of Hai Duong in particular and Vietnam in general. Chapter 2 FACTORS AFFECTING THE AGRICULTURAL ECONOMY OF HAI DUONG PROVINCE IN THE PERIOD 1883 – 1945 2.1. Geographical location, natural conditions 2.1.1. Geographical location and administrative boundary Hai Duong Province is located in the south- east of the Northern. It boeders with Quang Yen, Hai Phong, and Kien An on the east; Bac Giang on the north; Thai Binh on the south; Bac Ninh and Hung Yen on the west. Administrative unit includes 2 agents, 4 district governments and 9 districts: 2 agents: Ninh Giang and Dong Trieu 4 district governments( equivalent to districts): Nam Sach consisting of 13 wards with 98 communes; Kinh Mon consisting 8 wards with 81 communes; Ninh Giang consisting of 8 wards with 74 communes; Binh Giang consisting of 10 wards with 71communes 9 districts: Chi Linh consisting of 6 wards with 60 communes; Thanh Ha consisting of 10 wards with 70 communes; Kim Thanh consisting of 6 wards with 58 communes; Cam Giang consisting of 13wards with 86 coomunes; Thanh Mien consisting of 9 wards with 69 communes ; Gia Loc consisting of 9 wards with 80 communes; Tu Ky consisting of 8 wards with 89 communes; Vinh Bao consisting of 12 wards with 103communes; Dong Trieu consisting of 5 wards with 56 communes The whole province has 117 wards and 1013 communes (villages). Center is Hai Duong, which has been called Hai Duong City since 1923. The number of district governments and districts did not change until August, 1945. 2.1.2. Natural conditions * Topography The topography of Hai Duong Province is divided into 2 regions: mountainous region and plain region. The mountainous region is in the north of the province, comprising Chi Linh District, Dong Trieu District, and Kinh Mon District. The plain region is in the south of the province, deposited by alluvial soil from Thai Binh river. The plain region, measured to 445,000 //// (1,600 km2) is larger than the mountainous region. This kind of l
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