Tóm tắt Luận án Analysis of the structure of the natural synthesis of Thai Nguyen province for the purpose of rational using the natural resources and sustainable development

Thai Nguyen province is considered the cultural and economic central of Northern midlands and mountainous region. This province has strategic position, natural conditions and resources that favor the development. However, till this day, the province’s economic development is generally not up to its potential, the living of its ethnic minorities is still poor and hard. Moreover, under the pressure from population growth and with out-dated technology, the province’s economic, which is heavily depended on natural resources, will easily be lagging behind. Thai Nguyen needs to have a change in pace and reform to be worthy of its tradition and to make use of its potential.

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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING VIETNAM ACADEMY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Graduate University of Science and Technology ---------------- LE THI NGUYET ANALYZING THE STRUCTURE OF THE NATURAL SYNTHESIS OF THAI NGUYEN PROVINCE WITH PURPOSES OF REASONABLE USE OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Speciality : Natural geography Code : 62 44 02 17 SUMMARY OF GEOGRAPHY DOCTOR THESIS HA NOI - 2015 MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING VIETNAM ACADEMY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Graduate University of Science and Technology ---------------- LE THI NGUYET ANALYZING THE STRUCTURE OF THE NATURAL SYNTHESIS OF THAI NGUYEN PROVINCE WITH PURPOSES OF REASONABLE USE OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Speciality : Natural eography Code : 62 44 02 17 SUMMARY OF GEOGRAPHY DOCTOR THESIS HA NOI - 2015 Thesis was completed at the : Graduate University of Science and Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology Advisors: 1. Dr. Nguyen Lap Dan 2. Ass.Prof.Dr. Nguyen Van Cam Critic 1: Prof.Dr.Sc. Pham Hoang Hai Critic 2: Ass.Prof.Dr. Nguyen Thuc Nhu Critic 3: Ass.Prof.Dr. Tran Viet Khanh The thesis is protected before thesis assess Council of the Graduate University level, meeting at: at hour,., 2015 This thesis can be found from the National Library and Graduate University of Science and Technology , s Library. Thesis was completed at the : Graduate University of Science and Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology Advisors: 1. Dr. Nguyen Lap Dan 2. Ass.Prof.Dr. Nguyen Cam Van Critic 1: Prof.Dr.Sc. Pham Hoang Hai Critic 2: Ass.Prof.Dr. Nguyen Thuc Nhu Critic 3: Ass.Prof.Dr. Tran Viet Khanh The thesis is protected before thesis assess Council of the Graduate University level, meeting at: at hour,., 2015 This thesis can be found from the National Library and Graduate University of Science and Technology , s Library. OPENING 1. THE URGENCY OF THIS THESIS. Thai Nguyen province is considered the cultural and economic central of Northern midlands and mountainous region. This province has strategic position, natural conditions and resources that favor the development. However, till this day, the province’s economic development is generally not up to its potential, the living of its ethnic minorities is still poor and hard. Moreover, under the pressure from population growth and with out-dated technology, the province’s economic, which is heavily depended on natural resources, will easily be lagging behind. Thai Nguyen needs to have a change in pace and reform to be worthy of its tradition and to make use of its potential. From Thai Nguyên’s navigation of development to 2020, the economic structure will be Industry - Services – Agriculture. As a midlands and mountainous province with majority of the people work in agriculture and forestry, these fields can contribute greatly to province’s development. Under this navigation, province’s agriculture and forestry will be changed into the way of intensive farming, high productivity. There are already researches and projects every year which continuously help boosting the province’s and forestry. However, they only stay in their objectives of serving restricted purpose, not have the intention of analyzing and planning the whole territory. To solve this realistic problem and help improve the economic and social development of the province, I present the thesis: “Analysis of the structure of the natural synthesis of Thai Nguyen province for the purpose of rational using the natural resources and sustainable development". 2. RESEARCH’S MISSION Creat geographical basis by analyzing and assessing the structure of the natural synthesis to guide and organize the the sustainable development of Thai province’s agriculture and forestry. 3. RESEARCH’S COVERAGE - To establish the rationale and methodology. - Analyzing the structure of the natural synthesis to find the rule differentiation and specificity.. - Use ecological suitability assessment methods to assess Thai Nguyen province’s structure of the natural synthesis for the purpose of developing agriculture and forestry - Propose the direction and solutions for the organization of the territorial space for the purpose of rational using the natural resources and sustainable development. 1 4. SCOPE OF THE STUDY OF THE THESIS 4.1. Territorial scope The researched territory includes the whole Thai Nguyen province, from the coordinates 21019'N to 22003'B and 105029'E to 106015'E, with 9 administrative units: Thái Nguyên City, Sông Công commune, Định Hóa district, Võ Nhai district, Đại Từ district, Phú Lương district, Đồng Hỷ district, Phú Bình district, Phổ Yên district. 4.2. Scientific scope - Analysis of structural diversity of synthesis natural of Thai Nguyen province. The studied synthesis are similar with the inner landscape, theoretically there are many landscape concept, in practice, Thai Nguyen province territorial has been exploited for a long time, virtually there is no longer pristine landscape of the so-called synthesis natural position. Landscape structure including spatial structure, function structure and landscape dynamic . - Use ecological suitability assessment methods to assess Thai Nguyen province’s structure of the natural synthesis for the purpose of developing agriculture and forestry. - Assessed Subjects: The author assess the suitability for forestry development (3 forest types by functions: protective forests, special-use forests, productive forest); agricultural development (tea, soybean, rice and evaluate the development of pastures). 5. ARGRUMENTS - 1st Agrument: Natural synthesis structure of Thai Nguyen province shows the diversity of distribution and complexity, is both deeply influenced by azonal rule, and also follows the rules of zonal and is strongly influenced by the human’s activities; formed a system of landscape units include: 1 system of landscape, 1 sub-system of landscape, 3 landscape classes, 6 landscape sub-classes, two types of landscape and 85 landscapes. - 2 nd Argument: Use ecological suitability assessment methods to assess 85 landscapes of Thai Nguyen province for economic and environmental protection purposes. This is an important basis for the proposed organizing the using of territory for sustainable development of Thai province’s agriculture and forestry. 6. NEW POINTS OF THE THESIS - Analysis the diversity of natural synthesis structure of Thai Nguyen province. Establish classification system for the natural synthesis structure and build the Landscape map of Thai Nguyen in 1 /100,000 scale. - Assessing the degree of adaptation of the natural synthesis structure of Thai Nguyen province for forestry development (development of protective forests, special-use forests, productive forest), for agricultural development (tea, soybean, rice and evaluate the development of pastures). Build the Assessment of the adaptation degree Map of Thai Nguyen in 1 /100,000 scale. 2 - Propose the direction and solutions for the organization of the territorial space for forestry and agricultural sustainable development. Build the Forestry and agricultural development orientation map 1 /100,000 scale. 7. THE SCIENTIFIC AND PRACTICAL SIGNIFICANT OF THESIS 7.1. Scientific significant The thesis contributes to improve ecological suitability assessment methods natural synthesis structure for the rational use of natural resources and sustainable development. The results of the thesis will be useful resources to serve the research mapping the landscape, landscape assessment maps, orientation map for development of agriculture and forestry for the territorials with similar conditions. 7.2. Practical significant The research results of the thesis will be the scientific basis for spatial territorial planning of agriculture and forestry of Thai Nguyen to 2020, with vision to 2030. 8. THESIS STRUCTURE The thesis has 4 chapters: Chapter 1: Rationale of analyzing the natural synthesis structure for the purpose of rational using the natural resources and sustainable development. Chapter 2: Analysis the diversity of natural synthesis structure of Thai Nguyen. Chapter 3: Assessing the natural synthesis structure of Thai Nguyen province for forestry and agricultural sustainable development. Chapter 4: Orientate the agriculture and forestry territorial of Thai Nguyen province. Chapter 1 RATIONALE OF ANALYZING THE NATURAL SYNTHESIS STRUCTURE FOR THE PURPOSE OF RATIONAL USING THE NATURAL RESOURCES AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 1.1. THE SIMILARITY OF MEANING BETWEEN THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SYNTHESIS STRUCTURE AND LANDSCAPE IN THIS THESIS Modern natural geographical modern views on relationships and interdependencies among the components that make up the natural synthesis natural position at different levels, be it at the level of small to supply the planet's largest. Landscape study is part of the natural geography, the study of synthesis natural scale and the local area as part of the shell structure of geography (Ixatrenko, 1991). According to the research there are three concepts about landscape scenery (depending on the contents of the study wants to express): Landscape as a general concept, synonymous with the overall site and place system ( F.N. Minkov, D.L.Armand ...); Landscape is the classification of units (B.B.Polunov, N.A. Gvozdetxki, ...); Landscape as individual units (N.A.Xolsev, A.G.Ixatxenko, Vũ Tự Lập...). 3 According to authors Nguyen Cao Huan, Pham Hoang Hai, Nguyen Thanh Long ... no matter what the perspective from which the landscape is viewed the landscape is still seen as a natural synthesis, while the difference of the on the notion that the landscape is considered units of any level units, the landscape is defined and shown on any map in a way, manner or inductive interpretation. For Thai Nguyen, the body naturally synthesized by the author of the thesis research has similarities with the inner landscape, because so many concepts as landscape analysis, in fact, the provincial territory Taiyuan to be exploited for a long time, virtually no primary features of the landscape so- called synthesis natural position as Vu Tu Lap was later called the geographical system without known as the landscape or individual scenes as previous studies. The author also inherited the research to go ahead, as is the integrated landscape natural nature type, is associated with the ecological criteria and the extent of human impact. 1.2. RESEARCHED PROJECTS OVERVIEW 1.2.1. The study of landscape structure and landscape assessment for the purpose of rational use of the territory 1.2.1.1. Researchs around the world a. The study of the structure, function, dynamics of landscape The concept of landscape structure is currently ununified, there are many definitions of landscape structure. In general, the author refers to the spatial structure (including vertical structure and the horizontal structure) and the dynamics of the landscape (the change of landscape structure over time ...) . The study of landscape structure catch attention of authors such as V.X. Preobrajenxki, N.A. Xoltsev (1947.1971), X.V. Kalexnik (1978), Bastian and Steinhardt (2002), ... As researching on the role of components of the landscape structure, there are also some different concepts. Some authors suggested that these components have equal roles in the forming the landscape as reflected in their levels of conservative or advance. Some authors suggested that the functional role of each component in the formation of landscapes is different, an example of this second group is N.I. Xoltxev. According to him, each component of the landscape has different impact levels, in which the temperature - humidity and organisms are components of the transformation of geographic system, these components have the highest fluctuation . According Ixatrenko (1969), the distinction of key components as dominant or dependent are only relatively, only makes sense in a time rather than the historical development of the landscape. Research of the function is also mentioned in many works: AG Ixatrenko (1961), Forman (1981), De Groot (1992) ... Just as structural studies, research landscape features many different concepts. According A.G. Ixatrenko (1961), functional landscape is "general exchange, physical transformation of material and energy in the landscape", and Forman (1981) 4 re-define "the energy flow, nutrient and biological material between landscape elements. " Besides, the function of the landscape is also understood as the benefits that people obtain from the properties and processes of landscape acccording to Niemann (1977), De Groot (1992) ... In landscape planning there is also a common term multifunctional landscapes (especially in Europe). b. The study of the landscape classification system Along with the system partition of the author: Xoltxev (1958.1960); M.I. Mikhainov (1962); V.I. Prokaev (1967), is the classification system landscape of the author A.G. Ixatrenko (1961), N.A. Gvozdexki (1961), V.A. Nhicolaev (1966), P.W. Mitchell and I.A. Howard (FAO- 1978) ... Between the landscape classification system where the number of criteria, hierarchical classification levels are not the same because different authors based on the characteristics of their studied territory and the scale of the maps they established. c. Research on the landscape assessment Landscape assessment was reviewed from the 70s of XX century in many different aspects, such as the study of LI Mukhina (1973), Kunhixki (1973). Following the previous landscape assessment methods, many technic landscape assessment technics are given such as: evaluating the economic efficiency by means of analyzing the cost - benefit (Alfred Mashall and Zvoruvkin KB 1968). Research and evaluate in a more integrated comprehensive way from nature to economic – social and environmental is mentioned in the work of FAO in land evaluating since the 1980s (particularly since the 1990s) so far (FAO, 1993). 1.2.1.2. Vietnamese’s Researchs a. Researchs of the landscape structure, function, dynamics First mention the study of landscape structure in Vietnam was in Vu Tu Lap’s researches. In the "Geographical landscape of northern Vietnam", he has researched the vertical structure of the landscape in northern Vietnam, specified the involvement of the natural elements in the creation, development of the landscape. The horizontal structure of the landscape across North Vietnam was the studied by the author from the bottom up, from levels and types of geographic. The research of Pham Quang Anh has introduced the concept of ecological landscape structure, which is an "ecological economic model" with three modules: natural module, module of human society and production module which take the territory landscape as the basis. The researches of authors Pham Hoang Hai, Nguyen Thuong Hung, Nguyen Ngoc Khanh in the "The landscape basis of the rational using of natural resources, environmental protecting Vietnam", have studied characteristics of natural elements of Vietnam - one of the basic factors to create vertical structure of the landscape; research of classification units, the classification criteria applied to the landscape map of Vietnam ratio of 1 / 5 1,000,000; at the same time, study characteristics functional structure, dynamics features of the tropical monsoon landscape of Vietnam. Also, we need to mention the research of the author Nguyen Cao Huan "Analysis of the functional structure of the tropical geography for the purpose of rational using and protection of the nature"; authors Truong Quang Hai, Thinh Nguyen, Nguyen Thi Thuy Hang “landscape assessment for the purpose of development of agriculture, forestry and tourism in karst areas in Ninh Binh Province ", ... b. Researchs of Landscape Classification System Foremost to mention is the works of Vu Tu Lap (1976) which gave a classification system for geographic landscape of northern Vietnam with 8 levels. The landscape classification system of Pham Quang Anh developed in map scale of 1: 2,000,000 (1983) based on the classification system of Nhicolaiev, including 7 levels. The landscape classification system by Nguyen Thanh Long et al 10 levels. The classification system of the authors Pham Hoang Hai, Nguyen Thuong Hung, Nguyen Ngoc Khanh includes 7 levels. c. Researchs on the landscape assessment Since 1980 , studies about assessment of the landscape have developed. The research of Vu Tu Lap (1982) "Methodology and research, evaluation methods of synthesis natural conditions and territorial planning" and especially the research of Nguyen Cao Huan (2005 ) "Assessing the landscape according to ecological economics approach," research of Pham Hoang Hai " Adaptive evaluation method for geographic subjects" (2004) ... 1.2.2. Research on rational use of natural resource sand sustainable development of agriculture The notables includes the "Strategic Orientation for sustainable development in Vietnam” (21st Agenda of Vietnam) which was approved by the Prime Minister in 2004, a number of research projects for sustainable development of agriculture includes:Franck Jesus’ research "Sustainability of agricultural development in northern Vietnam," the study of Dang Van Phan Vu Nhu Van, Le Trong Cuc, Ha Van Hanh, Hoang Duc Triem ... 1.2.3. Researches on the territory of Thai Nguyen 1.2.3.1. Researches on the components of the landscape - In geology, topography - geomorphology and minerals: The works of authors Vu Tu Lap, Le Duc An, Vuong Dinh Khanh, studies of authors Tran Viet Khanh, Nguyen Thi May ... - In climate: the works of Pham Ngoc Toan Phan Nguyen Tat Dac and Nguyen Duc Ngu on climate in Vietnam in general and the work of the authors Nguyen Thi Hien, Mai Trong Thong also mentioned the area Thai Nguyen Province. - In Soils: in 2000, the Department of Natural Resources and Environment has planned projects for Thai Nguyen province’s land using in 6 the period from 1999 to 2010, the People's Committee of Thai Nguyen; Government (2006), "Resolutions on the adjustment of planning the using of land in 2010 and plans to use the land for 5 years (2006-2010) in Thai Nguyen". - In hydrological: There is work by Nguyen Lap Dan, Nguyen Thi Thanh Bang in project EU, STD3 - CT94 - 0310. Recently, work by the Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Thai Nguyen province. - In biological: Since 1993, the Institute of Forest Inventory and Planning Institute has built a List of Bac Thai plants, notably, in 2006 with the study of Le Xuan Canh, Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources. 1.2.3.2. General geographic studies Research in this direction includes the works of authors Mai Trong Thong, Nguyen Khanh Van and their colleagues. They have established climate map of Thai Nguyen province. The studies by Nguyen Cam Van, Nguyen Thi Hong, ... 1.3. RATIONALE AND METHODS IN NATURAL STRUCTURAL SYNTHESIS STUDIES. 1.3.1. Landscape structure 1.3.1.1. The spatial structure of the landscape - Vertical structure of the landscape is made up of related traits and relationship interactions between the constituent parts of the landscape. Regarding the role of the components constituting the landscape there are many different concepts. According V.X. Preobraj
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