Tóm tắt Luận án The link between tourism and low cost airline in the international economic integration in Viet Nam

The technological and scientific revolution and globalization is the most active social, technical and economic process nowadays, which strongly impact on the development and changes of production forces and production relation in some countries around the world. They appeals all branches of economics in different countries into the development, including aviation and tourism. Accordingly, they creates distinctive forms such as Low Cost Airline - LCA and the association between Tourism andLCA promoting the integration of national economies more rapidly into the system of large international division of labor, forming and developing the economic links such as ASEAN, EU,.

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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING UNIVERSITY OF ECONOMICS HO CHI MINH CITY ----o0o----- PHUNG THE TAM THE LINK BETWEEN TOURISM AND LOW COST AIRLINE IN THE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INTEGRATION IN VIET NAM Major: Political Economy Code: 62310102 THE SUMMARY OF A PhD THESIS IN ECONOMICS 2015 Training institution: University of Economics Ho Chi Minh City. Scientific supervisor: 1. Dr. Pham Thang 2. Assoc. Prof. Dr Duong Cao Thai Nguyen Antithesis 1:. Antithesis 2:. Antithesis 3:. The thesis will be defended in front of the Council grading the school level thesis at .... At., Date Month.Year You can refer to the thesis at: Vietnam’s National Library General Science Library Ho Chi Minh city Library of University of Economics Ho Chi Minh city ABBREVIATIONS LIST APEC Asia - Pacific Economic Cooperation Diễn đàn Hợp tác Kinh tế châu Á - Thái Bình Dương ASEAN Associationof Asia Southeast Asian Nation Hiệp hội các nước Đông Nam Á ASEANTA ASEAN Tourism Association Hiệp hội Du lịch Đông Nam Á ATAG Air Transport Action Group Nhóm hành động vận tải hàng không BRIC Brazil, Russia, India, China Nhóm các quốc gia mới nổi CAPA Centre for Aviation Trung tâm hàng không CEO Chief Eecutive Officer Giám đốc điều hành CLMV Campuchia, Lao, Myanmar and Vietnam Tiểu vùng hàng không Campuchia – Lào - Miến Điện - Việt Nam EU European Union Liên minh châu Âu FAA Federal Aviation Administration Cục Hàng không liên bang Hoa kỳ GTVT Giao thông vận tải HTA Ho Chi Minh Tourism Association Hiệp hội du lịch thành phố Hồ Chí Minh IATA Internation Aviation Transport Association Hiệp hội vận tải hàng không quốc tế ICAO Internation Civil Aviation Organization Tổ chức hàng không dân dụng quốc tế IPO Initial Public Offering Phát hành cổ phiếu ra công chúng lần đầu JAA Joint Aviation Authorities Cơ quan quản lý hàng không dân sự của một số quốc gia châu Âu JPA Jestar Pacific Airlines Công ty hàng không cổ phần Jestar Pacific airlines LCA Low Cost Airlines Hãng hàng không giá rẻ (chi phí thấp) LCAS Low Cost Airlines Service Dịch vụ hàng không giá rẻ MICE Meeting Incentive Conference Event Du lịch kết hợp hội nghị PATA Pacific Asia Travel Association Hiệp hội Du lịch Châu Á Thái Bình Dương SCIC State Capital Invesment Corporation Tổng công ty đầu tư và kinh doanh vốn nhà nước Việt Nam TP. HCM Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh TNC Transnational Corporation Công ty xuyên quốc gia Tourism Tourism Du lịch UNWTO United National World Tourist Organization Tổ chức du lịch thế giới UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Diễn đàn Thương mại và Phát triển liên hiệp quốc UNESCO United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization Tổ chức Giáo dục, Khoa học và Văn hóa của Liên Hiệp Quốc USD United State Dolar Đôla Mỹ VISTA Vietnam Society of Travel Agents Hiệp hội Lữ hành Việt Nam VNA Vietnam Airlines Hãng hàng không quốc gia Việt Nam Airlines VND Đồng Việt Nam WTO World Trade Organization Tổ chức thương mại thế giới WTTC World Travel & Tourism Council Hội đồng du lịch và lữ hành thế giới INTRODUCTION 1. The immediacy of the topic: The technological and scientific revolution and globalization is the most active social, technical and economic process nowadays, which strongly impact on the development and changes of production forces and production relation in some countries around the world. They appeals all branches of economics in different countries into the development, including aviation and tourism. Accordingly, they creates distinctive forms such as Low Cost Airline - LCA and the association between Tourism andLCA promoting the integration of national economies more rapidly into the system of large international division of labor, forming and developing the economic links such as ASEAN, EU,.. However, along with development of production force is the improvement of production relations of which socialization and capital internationalization make capital ownership be far separated from the use of capital promoting the world’s economy into the financial economy era – the global currency. The technical and economic processes has pushed the world’s economy from structure, raw material, and energy crisis to monetary-financial crisis in the region and the world. In that global context, our country’s economy is in the period of transition to socialist-oriented market economy and industrialization and modernization associated with knowledge-economy development through open economy strategy; therefore, it is not avoidable the negative and positive influences of the process. To make the economy escape the slow growth rate, the increasing inflation rate like now, each measure for all economic branches starts from increasing labor productivity, reducing the production cost, finding out the competitive advantages but linking the closely-related economic branches is preferred to intensify the benefits and lessen the risks. Tourism is the service economy which is general, interdisciplinary, inter-regional and highly- socialized.This is managerial organization form and its products created by the link of many branches, regions and different socio-economic subjects, including the association between airlines and enterprises which trade in travel service is the important part. Especially, in the context of international and regional tourism integration which are happening powerfully nowadays, the association between aviation and tourism is the decisive factor to the success of travel products because the cost of moving the point of departure to the destinations accounts for 40% to 60% of the tour cost. Before that trend, there quickly appears the type of Low Cost Airline – LCA to meet the demand of travelling, communicating of dwellers in different countries, especially meeting the needs of discounting international tours in order to promote the development of the economics of tourism. Recognizing the trend of internationalizing the tourism industry, Vietnam has proactively been accelerating the international and regional tourism integration. In the Resolution of the 11th National Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam in 2011, people affirmed: Developing the service industry, particularly finance, banking, commerce, travel service and services with high value Building some large national tourism center which effectively-associated with the large tourism center of other countries in the region. [page 198-199]. Responding to the appropriate of the Party, the aviation has improved and developed strongly which the private LCA enterprises is quickly established. Before the strong competition of the domestic and regional LCA enterprises engaged in our aviation service market, Vietnam National Airline (VNA) and Pacific Airlines also transfer one department to LCA Service. Pacific Airlines has transferred to the form of LCA, therefore, it has decreased the international and domestic tour. In the context of fierce competition like now, because of the limited financial and human resources and the inexperienced management, some private LCA enterprises force to accept going bankrupt or stop flying to refresh the human resources, structuring the flight crew and reorganize the managerial organization machine. However, the existence and development of LCA is the objective economy .The objectiveness comes from the development need of the social productivity increasing rapidly in most countries around the world which make the income and educational level of dwellers increase continuously. It has led tourism to become indispensable part of growing people with average income or better, including developing countries like Vietnam. Welcoming the development trend of the world’s tourism, the association among industries in forming travel products is highly promoted, especially the link between tourism and aviation is considered as the stable and long-term extension strategy of two branches in the Vietnam’s economy. On April 10th, 2013 “The cooperation plan betweenVietnam National Administration of Tourism and Civil Aviation Authority of Vietnam for the period 2013-2015” is signed by the head of two organizations with the purposes of concretizing the cooperating program No.4050/CT-BVHTTDL – Ministry of Transport on November 13th, 2012 to enhance the effective responsibility of the cooperation , quality and competitiveness of two industries which promote Vietnam’s tourism industry to develop as an attracting destination of the Asia and in the world. With that meaning, the author choose the topic as ‘’ THE LINK BETWEEN TOURISM AND LOW COST AIRLINE IN THE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INTEGRATION IN VIET NAM” for his PhD thesis in political economics 2. The researching process associated with the thesis’s topic 2.1. The foreign works of Tourism – LCA association Until now, the author of the thesis has found little monograph researching respectively for the link LCA - Tourism abroad, especially studying the topic in Vietnam. However, in some works for researching tourism and airline or Low cost Airline, when analyzing some objective factors or development solutions of airlines, the association between airline and tourism are highly concerned and consider it as the basic solution to develop the industry. Although some works research for the tourism, analyzing the link between Tourism – LCA is still preferred, including Low Cost Airline with Tours as follow: - “Tourism - A new perspective” of Burn Peter and Holden Andrew. - “Tourism principle and practice” of Cooper, C. Gibert. - “Tourism in Developing countries” of Martin Oppermann and Kye - Sung. - “Low-cost Airline in the Asia Pacific Region” of An Exceptional Intra and “Regional Traffic Growth Opportunity” of Peter Harbison. - “What future for Low-cost Airline in Asia” of Richard Stirland. - “The economic benefits of Air Transport” of IATA, ATAG. Among many works regarding tourism, there are some following works taking Tourism – LCA link analysis priority. 2.1.1. The basic content associated with the link between Tourism - LCA in foreign works - The book “Value Creation in Travel Distribution” (2010) of Michael Straus - The book “Aviation and Tourism-Implications for leisure travel” (2008) of Anne Graham, University of Westminster (England), Andreas Papatheodorou at the University of The Aegean, Greece and Peter Forsyth at the University of Monash (Australia). - The book “Travel Economics and Traveling ” (2000) of Dong Minh Ngoc and Vuong Loi Dinh (China). 2.1.2. The contents of Tourism – LCA association has been analyzed and mentioned by the foreign authors Firstly, in three works researched and overviewed above, the foreign authors analyzed: 1) The dominant potentials and the shortcomings of Tourism – LCA association, especially analyzing the advantages when appearing LCA enterprise which provide LCAS to discount tours, create the favorable condition for developing “smokeless industry” and make up the high rate of Gross National Product (GNP) at different countries and economic areas; 2) Presenting the general method to ensure the airline can provide LCAS; 3) Initial analyzes of the role of the state, through its economic policies which promote the link and development of the two sectors and 4) By the real evidence of development and links between airline-tourism industry in different regions of the world and the activities of some specific LCA enterprises to assert the superiority of the link between the two branches Secondly, there exists some specific theories which have not been analyze by the author and will be implemented in the thesis such as: 1) The concept, nature, characteristic of links Tourism - LCA; 2) the forms of linking and optimum link model; 3) The economic objectiveness of Tourism – LCA association; 4) The real link between Tourism - LCA in the Vietnam’s market; 5) The success and failure of Tourism - LCA and 6) The possible solution to promote the link 2.2. The domestic research on the Tourism – Low Cost Airlines link in the international economic integration. In fact, until now, for this LCA business type which has just been born and its low cost airlines services have just shown to the market not so long, about 5, 6 years, so there’re no in-depth and adequate research of the LCAS link with our county tourism. However, in the study of tourism or LCA could still find the basis ideas of the objectivity or the Tourism– LCA link solution, shown in the scientific subjects and scientific doctoral thesis, professional research articles and website pages. 2.2.1. Some contents of the Tourism– LCA link solution from the scientific subjects at ministry level of the Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism From 2006 to present, in the ministry level projects, research on various aspects of tourism development, when mentioning of measures to promote tourism development then the link between tourism - aviation always respected and regarded as one of the decisive measures for the development of tourism and aviation, including LCA. - Ministry level project (2006): “The research for the proposal of measures for tourism investment development” headed by Master Le Van Minh and hosted by Institute for Research and Development of Tourism - Ministry level project (2007): “Research on the construction of Vietnam’s tourism competitive products in the region and internationally” headed by Dr. Do Cam Tho, hosted by Institute for Research and Development of Tourism, - Ministry level project (2011): “The status and development solutions for national ocean tourism areas in the North Central region” headed by Dr. Nguyen Thu Hanh, hosted by Institute for Research and Development of Tourism. 2.2.2. Some contents on the research of Tourism – LCA link in the dissertation research on tourism from the doctoral thesis of Tourism – LCA link in economic integration In the doctoral thesis, research on the different aspects of tourism development from 2007 up to now, the author of thesis spending proportional duration to analyze the advantages of tourism – aviation link in term of tourism development, considering the operation of businesses in the transport sector, especially that the aviation has great influence on cost, price, competitiveness, profitability and growth of various types of tourism business. It is clearly shown in the following thesis: - Doctoral thesis, topic: “Vietnam competitiveness tourist destination” (2010) by Nguyen Tuan Anh, defended at Hanoi National University - Doctoral thesis, topic “Quang Ninh tourism market in the international economic integration” by Tran Xuan Anh (2011), defended at the Ho Chi Minh National Institute of Political-Administrative. - Doctoral thesis in economics, topic “Business development of tourist accommodation in the Northern tourism region of Vietnam” (2011) by Hoang Thi Lan Huong, defended at National Economics University, Hanoi. - Doctoral thesis, topic “Development of tourist travel services in conditions of international economic integration: Experiences of some East Asian countries and the policy suggestion for Vietnam” (2012) by Nguyen Trung Khanh, defended at the Graduate Academy of Social Sciences – Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences. * Some content in the research on the tourism – LCA association in the thesises which examined the aviation service’s development - Doctoral thesis of economics, topic: “Accumulation and profit capabilities in the Civil Aviation of Vietnam” (1996) by Dao Manh Nhuong, which was upheld at the Ho Chi Minh Academy of National Politics. - Doctoral thesis in economics, topic “Establish the low-cost airline in Vietnam by the year of 2020” (2005) by Duong Cao Thai Nguyen at the University of Economics in Ho Chi Minh City. 2.3. Summary result from the projects which are reviewed and the issues that the thesis will continue to study. 2.3.1. Basis results from the projects which are reviewed. Through the domestic and international projects which re reviewed, the following issues have been mentioned, the thesis will inherit and develop further, completion in terms of matching with content and requirements of the thesis: First, some of the domestic and international projects have mentioned about the low cost aviation service (LCAS) concept, tourism service and the basis features of these both services. Also to mention about the low cost airline (LCA) and tourism business with different business models such as: travel tour operator, accommodation operator, transportation operator serving tourism, etc. and the features of these type of business models. However, in order to bring the above concepts into the thesis, need to re-summarize and to add new features in accordance with the content and requirements of the thesis. Second, some methods have been mentioned in some projects that the LCA companies to implement to reduce costs and supporting in the air and on the ground, selection of flying path, flying network and suitable flying crews, etc These contents are inherited by the thesis and to expand further, binding the operation features and cost reduction method of the aviation for more consistent and similar. Third, some projects have mentioned such as operation management mechanism and role of government’s policies in the development of Tourism-LCA link. Some projects or short articles on the website but just end-up at practical describing without scientific argumentation theory of the regulatory role of the government to accelerate of this linking process, the thesis will inherit and develop further. Fourth, many practical materials and the operation situation of LCA companies and tourism businesses are inherited by the thesis’s author and reconstructed under the criteria to meet the subject. Fifth, most of the projects are reviewed and mention about the opinions, orientation, and the solution system to promote LCA or tourism to growth. In here, the thesis only inherits the linking solutions between Tourism- Aviation or Tourism – LCA to develop and improve further. 2.3.2. Issues will be expanded in the thesis. Until now, thesis’s author has not yet found any monograph written about the development link between Tourism – LCA of the service market in our country. Therefore, the approved fundamental content in the thesis which is studied and implemented by himself. The contents are as follows: First, objectively economics demonstration of the Tourism – LCA link required by the intrinsic requirements of regulations of the both sectors, in which, the tourism products as the products launched on the basis of multi-sector link, and the link with the aviation plays an extreme important role, especially for the international tours. Second, analysis of international economics integration, especially the tourism integration, sky liberalization requires LCA and travel tour operators must work together to confront with the LAC companies in the region and to ensure the success of the integration process, and balanced development of the both sectors in the conditions of economic globalization and booming of the scientific and technical revolution. Third, construction of model and optimal linking mechanism between Tourism and using this theory to track the existing conditions of the progress of Tourism - LCA link on the service market – integration of Vietnam. From that point out the necessary conditions and factors affecting the progress of this link. Fourth, clearly define the role of Tourism – LCA link in the development of both sectors and for the operation of the whole economy. Especially, to launch the common product of the link to create the optimal low cost tourism product. Fifth, point out the basis ideas and system of feasibility solutions to push up the linking progress between Tourism – LCA and to ensure the sustainable development in the socialist-oriented mark
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