Tóm tắt Luận án Varnas in indian old books

India is considered one of the pioneering civilizations, opened the era of human civilization, has left a lot of great achievements for the world, a nation with full of wisdom and identity. Therefore, the important position of India in the world history has been confirmed by numerous studies about this sacred land. Moreover, throughout its long history, Indian traditional culture has spread extremely vast, especially to countries in Southeast Asia, including Vietnam. So, studying about India helps us understand more about Eastern culture and it is the basis to capture Southeast Asian history.

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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING HA NOI NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION TONG THI QUYNH HUONG VARNAS IN INDIAN OLD BOOKS Major: World History Major code: SUMMARY OF HISTORY DOTORAL THESIS HA NOI - 2016 WORK TO BE COMPLETED IN FACULTY HISTORY HANOI NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION The scientific guidance: Assoc.Prof.Dr Dinh Ngoc Bao Reviewer 1: Assoc.Prof.Dr Nguyen Phu Loi – Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics Reviewer 2: Assoc.Prof.Dr Vo Kim Cuong – Institute of History Reviewer 3: Dr Nguyen Quoc Tuan – Religious Studies The thesis will be protected spots School Councils doctoral thesis at the meeting in Hanoi National University of Education On day ...... month ...... year Can be found the thesis in: - National Library of Vietnam - Library of Ha Noi National University of Education INTRODUCTION 1. Reasons for selecting the title of the thesis India is considered one of the pioneering civilizations, opened the era of human civilization, has left a lot of great achievements for the world, a nation with full of wisdom and identity. Therefore, the important position of India in the world history has been confirmed by numerous studies about this sacred land. Moreover, throughout its long history, Indian traditional culture has spread extremely vast, especially to countries in Southeast Asia, including Vietnam. So, studying about India helps us understand more about Eastern culture and it is the basis to capture Southeast Asian history. The basis of Indian culture is Indian traditional society. It is a society, which has typical features of an oriental society and has many peculiarities, with Indian spirit. One of its distinctive characters is the persistence of the caste systems that have particularly dominated the process of social development in India for thousands of years. In particular, Varnas was the first caste system in India. Varnas is "the key" to understand Indian traditional society that was full of racial and religious complexities. Therefore, studying about Varnas helps us discover “Indian world”, it is the core and is one of the most striking characteristics of ancient Indian society. Caste discrimination appeared in many countries around the world, but nowhere is the inequality between different castes at extreme level and persistent as in India. The co-existence of both Indian modern leading technology centers and traditional Indian customs, habits and rituals with the caste system still exists in mind always attracts curious historians to try to explain this interesting phenomenon. When studying about ancient India, ancient documents are considered one of the most important resources. Because of the dominating role played by religion in Indian social life, culture, customs and traditions...So, the Indian old books especially Hindu scriptures such as sruti, smriti, literature, mythology became the main sources of Indian society’s information. Thus, Varnas has been mentioned in many old books, including the law of Manu, the law of Narada, Vedas, Upanishads, Mahabharata, Ramayana, Arthashastra.... The old books have its advantages in reflecting Varnas because of the rich and diversity in types of materials, as well as specific and detailed in content about Varna. Therefore, studying about Varnas through Indian old books will help us have a more comprehensive and profound insight, thereby help us understand parts of contemporary Indian social reality. In Viet Nam, almost all studies about India mentioned about Varna or caste system. But a problem seem very familiar in many books of India has not had a monographic works and does not have in-depth study in Vietnam. In particular, Varna in the old books is still a gap in research both in Viet Nam and abroad. Therefore, conducting a thesis titled “Varnas in Indian old books” is a necessary job. Moreover, understanding the important topic as Varna through old books of India will be an essential research in the context of original sources material used in teaching was less exploited. A successful research of this issue will contribute to adding in-depth resources about ancient - medieval period in Indian history. Stemming from the above reasons, the study on "Varnas in Indian old books" is a matter of necessity, having both practical and scientific meanings. Therefore, I have chosen this topic as title of my thesis. 2. Subjects, scope, purpose and research tasks 2.1. Research subjects Varnas in Indian old books 2.2. Scope of the study - About space: ancient India’s territory includes mainly northern India and parts of Central and South India. - About time: approximately from 1500 BC to the fourth century, around this time was the old books reflect the Varnas primarily. - About content: Varnas was reflected in some old books in ancient India, which focused on the basic problem is origin of Varnas, the distinction between the level of Varna on fundamental areas such as economic, politic, law, religion, marriage and family ... 2.3. Purpose of research Through some old books, this thesis learns and clarification, in particular the content, nature and characteristics of Varna was reflected in that document. Since then evaluate the role of this regime towards society in ancient India. Through content to dive into the social reality of ancient India. 2.4. Research Tasks From the subject, scope and purpose of the study, thesis identify research tasks are: First, learning about Varnas was reflected in some old books in ancient India about origin, the distinction between castes on several fields. Second, commenting on the Varnas in some old books (nature and characteristics) as well as the role of that mode for Indian society in ancient times. Third, learning about old books system of India, especially some old books used in this thesis. From that, pointing out the value of old books to learn about Varna particular and ancient Indian society in general. 3. Data sources and research methods 3.1. Data sources First of all, about original material, the thesis mostly uses English translations and Vietnamese translations summaries of Indian old books as the law of Manu, Narada law, Mahabharata, Bhagavadgita, Ramayana, Arthashastra. In addition, the thesis also uses some excerpts in the Vedas, Upanishads and some other old books. Second, the thesis references and content views of Karl Marx entries of “India during British colonial” domination of print in the "Marx - Engels Complete" (episode 9). Beside using translations of the original documents, writings of the classical authors, the thesis uses many monographic works of Vietnamese and abroad scholars; textbooks, specialized scientific journals. This thesis also uses some additional documents and selected books from Internet sources. In addition, field experiences in India in 2014 helped me improve new knowledge to research topics. 3.2. Research methods This thesis uses interdisciplinary and majors research methods in the process to implement the project. In particular, the method of history and logic method are two main methods used to solve the fundamental problem posed topic. 4. Contribution of the Thesis The research results of this thesis will contribute: - Study of Varnas in some old books in a systematic way and detail. This will be the first project in Vietnam studies Varnas in old books in ancient India besides other studies on the history, culture, philosophy, literature, ideology ... India has referred to Varnas . - Through learning about Varnas in some old books to understand the part of Hindu religious views in particular, the Indian society in general. From there, see the consequences of the regime for the development of Indian society. - Chemical system, providing a quarter of the original datas in the Indian history teaching in universities and schools. 5.Structure of the thesis Besides the introduction, conclusion, references and appendices, this thesis is divided into four chapters: Chapter 1. Overview of research Chapter 2. Overview of Indian old books Chapter 3. The origin and the distinction among Varnas in Indian old books Chapter 4. Some comments on Varnas in Indian old books CHAPTER 1. OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH 1.1. Historiography 1.1.1. The studies on Varnas system studies of Foreign scholars Varna problem has been studied intensively in many books and monographs on the Indian caste system in general of foreign scholars as:“Indian Caste”,by John Wilson, 2 volumes, 1897; “Hindu Castes and Sects”, by Jogendra Nath Bhattacharya, 1896; “Caste in India: Their mechanism, genesis and development”, 1916, by Dr.B.R.Ambedkar; “Caste in India, the facts and the system”, Emile Senart wrote and Sir Edward Denison Ross edited and translated, 1930; “Indian Caste System: A Study”, 1931, the author is C. Hayavadana Rao; “Indian Caste System”, by R.K Pruthi, 2004; “The Caste system of Northern India” by E.A.H Blunt, 2010 Besides the in-depth research, direct mention, Varna also has been mentioned in numerous joint research projects on the history, culture, philosophy, sociology ... of India as: : “Philosophy of ancient India”, 1897, byRichard Garbe; “Hindu Manners, customs and ceremonies”, by Abbe J A. Dubois; “A History of India”, volume 1, 1984, by Romila Thapar; “Discovering India”, 3 volumes, 1990, byJawaharlal Nehru; “The Penguin history of early India from the origins to AD 1300”, 2002, by Romila Thapar; “A History of India” (Lịch sử Ấn Độ), 2004, by two authors Hermann Kulke và Dietmar Rothermund; “India: The ancient past from 7000 BC to AD 1200”, by Burjor Avari, 2007.... Most scholars view of the West and India also agreed that Varna is the concept only "color" or "color mode”, Varnas residents divide India into different groups based on differences in skin color and race. Varnas has hereditary nature, a person can not choose for themselves Varnas which depends on that person's descendants. The Western scholars also pointed out that differences in skin color that comes from two big races are Aryans and the indigenous people, Varna is also a concept to indicate division rank mode. Some uniformity Varna with Caste, have argued that inclusion Caste Varna but agreed in the view that Varna is the first concept that refers to the distinction of the Indian population strata in which Indian society is divided into four major caste. studies of Vietnam scholars In Vietnam, the issue of Varnas was mentioned scatterly through history books or comprehensive studies of Indian cultural history, literature, philosophy ... These include a number of works, such as: “Ấn Độ qua các thời đại” and “Tìm hiểu văn hóa Ấn Độ”, jointly published in 1986, by Nguyen Thua Hy. “Văn hóa Ấn Độ” (1993)and “Tìm hiểu thần thoại Ấn Độ”(2003), by Cao Huy Dinh; “Lịch sử Ấn Độ” by Vu Duong Ninh, Phan Van Ban, Nguyen Cong Khanh, Dinh Trung Kien, 1995; “Lịch sử thế giới cổ đại” Lương Ninh editor, 2001; “Lịch sử tư tưởng triết học Ấn Độ cổ đại”, 2010, by Doan Chinh;“Ấn Độ hôm qua và hôm nay” by Dinh Trung Kien. Vietnam researchers are quite unified in the view that Varnas means "color" or "color skin". Varnas emphasized the Indian social stratification into several major class based on differences in skin color, race between the Aryans and the indigenous Dravidian, besides rely on occupational, religious, purity ... In the process of conquest and land ownership from Dravidian, Aryan had set this mode to rule the natives. In the thesis, the author uses the concept of Varnas means it is the first caste system in Indian history, Indian inhabitants divided into groups of people who have the status, interests and different identity. From this mode, in history of India also appears the other castes. 1.1.2. The studies about Indian old books For a long time, the study of Indian ancient documents as the law of Manu, Mahabharata, Ramayana, Vedas, Upanishads, ... has attracted attention in many countries with lots of work such as: “the laws of Manu” edited and translated by Wendu Doniger and Brian. K. Smith, was published in Mudran Basu, Kolkata, 1991; Book "The Minor Law Books" by Julius Jolly, in the book "The Scared Books of the East", episode 33 - Narada, published in 1889. Arthashastra of Kautilya was first translated into English from the original work and published in Bangalore, by R.Shamasastry translator,Goverment Press, 1915. Recently, L.N.Rangarajan has translated it, named "The Arthashastra ", by Penguin Books, first published in New Delhi, 1992. Mahabharata and Ramayana were translated into English and many other languages by translators around the world. In addition to translations, that two works are studied quite a lot in monographicbooksincluding the book "The Society of the Ramayana", the author is Ananda Guruge, 1991; "The Indian epics retold", Penguin Books published in 1995, author R.K.Narayan; "Epic India" by C.V. Vaidya Asian Educational Services, New Delhi, India, published in 2001 ... The study of domestic scholars can mention the typical projects such as the Mahabharata and Ramayana translations of Cao Huy Dinh, Pham Thuy Ba; "Kinh văn của các trường phái triết học Ấn Độ" (Texts of Indian philosophical schools) by Doan Chinh and Vu Quang Ha, Nguyen Anh Thuong, Dinh Hung Dung, 2005; "Bhagavad - Gita nguyên nghĩa" (Bhagavad – Gita Original Meaning) by Tran Kim Thư translated from the English and Russian version of this work; "Luật Manu trong đời sống xã hội Ấn Độ xưa và nay " (The Law of Manu in India social life, then and now) by Prof.Dr. Dinh Ngoc Bao... 1.2. Problems that have been solved and problems posed for thesis Overall, Varna referred to many and quite specifically in the study of the caste system in particular and the history, culture and society in general India's foreign scholars. In Vietnam, the new content is mentioned broadly informed through history books or study the history and culture of India. The whole point is not to have a separate study mentioned a systematic manner, fully to Varna in India in ancient times, did not have a work that explores the caste system in ancient bibliographies system India. Therefore, on the basis of selection and selective inherit the results of the study authors and abroad, the thesis will need to go deeper to clarify the scientific content follows: - Overview of Indian old books system and its values in learning Varna - The origin of Varna through some old books - The reflection of old books on the distinction between the level of the Varna on various aspects. - Draw comments about this special mode: from reflection of old books on the regime of Varna saw the essence of the regime; the impact and its impact on society in ancient India in particular, and in the long history of India in general; the special nature of Varna. CHAPTER 2. OVERVIEW OF INDIAN OLD BOOKS 2.1. The context of the formation of Indian old books The simplest way to understand the meaning of the old books are manuscripts or documents of ancient texts that have a long history. These can exist in the form of general books or records, documents or individual documents or sometimes text that is recorded on the stele, tomb or a artifacts or historic area. Broadly may split into two basic types are Hinduism old books and non Hinduism of those, but the majority of India's ancient bibliographies Hinduism or related to the Hindu religion. Can be divided Hinduism scriptures into two parts mainly Sruti and Smriti: Firstly, Sruti: the basic work is Veda. Veda include Rig Veda, Sama Veda, Yajur Veda and Veda Arthava. Each Veda include: Mantra, Brahmana, Aranyaka and Upanishad. Secondly, Smriti: includes the main components are Purana (ie Myths & Co, everything sacred area), Sastra (presentation, explained the Hindu religious conceptions about intimate matters of people like Darmasastra basis of an on Dharma, Arthasastra - about duty, about pleasures Kamasastra), Sustra (rules, including Grihyasustra - family rules and rituals to keep house; Kamasustra - rules of pleasure). Also, there Manusmriti, Naradasmriti are rules of social action - often known as the laws. Besides, the Hindu religious system later bibliography is also complemented by the Hindu literature like Mahabharata, Bhagavad Gita, Ramayana ... For the old books is not Hinduism are composed mainly of decree or decree of the king and the Morya epitaph, engraved text on iron columns, a holistic work ... Since Indian old books were born until became a complete system of writing was a process that lasted thousands of years. Those are the intellectual elite crystallizes the length of Indian history. Thus, the appearance of these old books are linked to the specific historical circumstances. Indian old books supposedly born after the Indus civilization and was completed in a very long time. Ministry of the earliest was born as Veda (about 1500 to 1000 BC, and was recorded at around century VII BC), followed by the Upanishads in VI century BC. Later, in the fourth century BC, Kautilya wrote Arthashastra, this may also be a time appeared the Purana, sastra (argument) and sustra (rules). Two epics Mahabharata and Ramayana origin and talk about the events from the beginning BC but it began to be recorded in a few centuries BC, have delayed even further. The adjoining sun century was thriving period of Sanskrit texts such as the Bhagavad Gita, the laws of Manu (supposedly derived from the second century BC, but completed in the second century AD), codification Narada (born around the third century BC) .... Overall, between 1500 BC and the fourth century as the Indian old books system completed the form and contents with the introduction of a series of ancient books. The old books system of India are very voluminous and complex. Most of the Indian old books mention Varnas at different levels. However, in the framework of the thesis, the author uses only some basic bibliography which refers to Varnas with more capacity and reflect diversity, which are mainly Hindu bibliography. 2.2. Some old books used in the thesis Indian old books system have formed over a long period, have not only been modified, supplemented in content, perfect in form but amount bibliography also constantly increased with the change of Hinduism and Indian life. From the limited purpose and scope of the thesis research, the author has selected and introduced some typical old books used in the thesis, including the old books used is: the law of Manu, Narada law, Arthashastra, Mahabharata (and Bhagavad Gita), Ramayana. 2.3. The values of Indian old books in studying Varna Varnas referred to in many old books, each text is a piece of the puzzle to complete and reflects Varnas on various aspects, also reflects the transformation of Varnas through every stage of history. The value of Indian old books in learning Varrnas at some point expressed as follows: Firstly, although the purpose, content and form of Indian old books are different and also the advent of the era are not the same but the general point of most of these documents is authentically reflects, rich and vivid history - social- Indian culture in a long time, while the regime of Varna. Second, the values of old books in understanding Varna are also reflected in the content storage Varnas mentioned in these documents. Third, the old books also represent the earliest thinking of Indian about the universe, man and the relationship between man and
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