Tóm tắt Luận án Building and applying interactive screen experiment in developing positiveness, self-Reliance and creativity of students in teaching mechanical motion of particle (Physics 10)

Resolution No. 29 by the Central Communist Party No. 8, term XI on basic and comprehensive innovation on education and training to meet the demands for the course of industrialization and modernization in the context of present international integration and confirmed “it is necessary to transform the educational process from focusing on knowledge instillation to emphasizing the forming, capacity building and quality of the learners”, and emphasizes comprehensive education, developing creativity, self-study, practical ability and skills, applying the knowledge into practice. Therefore, one of the teaching targets of physics at schools in “to develop scientific thinking of students, activeness, self-study in constructing and applying the knowledge, to creatively apply to solve the problems in studying and practice”.

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INTRODUCTION 1. Reason for choosing the topic Resolution No. 29 by the Central Communist Party No. 8, term XI on basic and comprehensive innovation on education and training to meet the demands for the course of industrialization and modernization in the context of present international integration and confirmed “it is necessary to transform the educational process from focusing on knowledge instillation to emphasizing the forming, capacity building and quality of the learners”, and emphasizes comprehensive education, developing creativity, self-study, practical ability and skills, applying the knowledge into practice. Therefore, one of the teaching targets of physics at schools in “to develop scientific thinking of students, activeness, self-study in constructing and applying the knowledge, to creatively apply to solve the problems in studying and practice”. At the same time, base on the characteristics of physics in schools :”Physics in schools is mainly experiments in which there is a flexible combination between observation, experiments and theoretical inference to achieve the agreement of theory and practice”, we realized that the applying with the method of teaching discovery and problem solving in way of experimental and theoretical reasoning with checking experiemental results is effective in developing the active awareness, self-study and creativity of students in studying physics. The analysis of content characteristics, teaching and studying status of physics in some high schools in Thai Nguyen, Tuyen Quang, Quang Ninh, Phu Tho province, etc.showed that the using of experiments with the method of teaching discovery and problem solvingin teaching physics – especially teaching mechanical movement of material ooints with the purpose to develop active aweareness, self-study and creativity of the students are not paid attention to appropriately for many different reasons. In comparing the objectives of training programs, knowledge contents and functions of using experiments in teaching physics, effect of the method of with the method of teaching discovery and problem solving, the status of teaching and studying physics, one of the methods is using experiments in teaching of physic in the means of discovery and problem solving. That is the reason why we chose the topic: “Building and applying interactive screen experiment in developing positiveness, self-reliance and creativity of students in teaching mechanical motion of particle (Physics 10)” 2. Research objectives Building and applying interactive screen experiment in teaching and studying mechanical movement of particle in Physic 10 to develop active awareness, self-study and creativity of the students. 3. Objectives and scope of research - Knowledge contents and the method of teaching discovery and problem solving in mechanical movement of material points in Physics 10 - The construction of interactive screen experiment on mechanical movement of material points. - The designing and organization of active awareness for the students using interactive screen experiment, specifically the interactive experiments on the screen have made some knowledge contents in mechanical movement of material points (Physics 10). 4. Scientific hypothesis If the interactive experiments on the screen on mechanical movement of material points are successfully carried out but still ensure the functions of a physical experiments and can be used effectively in the method of teaching discovery and problem solving, it is -possible to develop active awareness self-study and creativity of students in studying mechanical movement of material points (Physics 10). 5. Reasearch tasks - The theoretical research on the forming of teaching mechanical movement of material points. - Reasearch on the teaching theory on the method of teaching discovery and problem solving; from which apply the method of teaching discovery and problem solving in teaching mechanical movement of material points. - The modern theoretical research on the organization of active awareness, self-study and creativity of the students; - Theoretical research on physical experiments using and combining interactive experiments on the screen and traditional experiments in developing active awareness, sel-study and creativity for the students.. - Inspection on the status of experiments, teaching status of mechanical movement in material points in Physic 10 program; from which identifying the difficulties which the teachers face during organization of the active awareness, self-study and creativity activities for the students. - Researching and constructing interative experiments on the screen on mechanical movement of material points so that it is possible to apply the interative experiments to meet the demands of experiment equipment in these aspects: science, technology, pedagogy, economics, and aesthetics. - Recommendations for the solution for using interactive experiments on the screen have included and combined the practical experiments in organizing active awareness, self-study and creativity activities for the students in teaching mechanical movement of material points. - Drafting the teaching process for the types of mechanical movement of material points with the method of teaching discovery and problem solving, in which use the organized digital experiments or combine the digital experiments and the available traditional experiments in a way to develop the active awareness, self-study and creativity of the students. - Pedagogical experiments were drafted to assess the feability of teaching process and the constructed experiments in order to supplement, complete the teaching process. The constructed experiments to develop active awareness, self-study and creativenss of the students in studying mechanical movement of material points. 6. Research method - Theoretical research: doing research, analysis on the teaching theories, teaching theories of the subjects to understand the teaching point of views, teaching methods and types of teaching organization, experiment equipments, the using and combination of experiment equipments to organize activities to develop active awareness, self-study and creatvenss of the students; the program materials, text-books, teacher’s books and the materials related to experiment equipments regarding mechanical movement of material points in Physics 10; materials about construction softwares on the computer, particularly Macromedia Flash. - Practical research: doing study on the teaching status of mechanical movement of material points (Physics 10) by class observations, direct discussions with teachers and students, survey results of teachers and students’ view points. - Pedagigical experiment method: is being conducted in experimental classes according to the drafted teaching process and applied the method of teaching discovery and problem solving; in order to analyze and assess active awareness, self-study and creativity of the students during and after pedagogical experiment process; give the tests to students in the two groups of experiment and compare the results. - Mathematical statistic method: using mathematical statistics to process the data of experiment and assess the results of experiments. 7. The new points of the research - Specify the stages of forming knowledge as mechanical movement of material points with the method of teaching discovery and problem solving. - Constructing 05 interactive experiments on the screen which maintain the functions of a physical experiment can help to organize the activities to develop active awareness, self-study and creativity in teaching mechanical movement of material points in Physics 10 program. - Proposing 06 measures of using constructed experiments and using or combination with the traditional experiments in developing active awareness, self-study and creativity of the students in teaching mechanical movement of material points. - Drafting 05 teaching process for mechanical movement of material points (physics 10) in which using constructed experiments or combine using of traditional experiments , applying the method of teaching discovery and problem solving to develop active awareness, self-study and creativity of the students. - Pedagogical experiments and assessment of the feasibility of teaching process, using of constructed experiments, combined using of available experiment equipments in teaching mechanical movement of material points (physics 10) to develop active awareness, self-study and creativity of the students. Chapter 1: OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH POINTS In this chapter, we would like to give the overview on the genearal consctruction and using of experiemnts, especially digital experiements in teaching mechanical movement of material points to develop active awareness, self-study and creativity of the students. Through studying the scientific reports, doctorate thesis or post-graduate thesis concerning this topics, we realize that: The construction and using of experiments in teaching mechanical movement of material points is a topic of interest for Vietnamese authors as well as international authors and there were many optimistic results. However, there is still no research which includes principles, combined using measures of digital experiments and other experimentsin teaching mechanical movement of material points to develop active awareness, self-study and creativity of the students. From the above analysis, we saw the focusing points of reasearch are as follows: - Doing research interactive screen experiments on mechanical movement of material points (Physics 10) which ensure scientific criteria, pedagygy, technology, economics and aethestics. - Proposing the measures of using constructed interactive screen experiments and the combined using measures of avalable experiments in developing active awareness, self-study and creativity of the students. - Applying the theory on the method of teaching discovery and problem solving to build the teaching process for mechanical movement of material points (Physics 10), in which using the constructed interactive experiments on the screen and combined available experiments to develop active awareness, self-study and creativity of the students. Chapter 2: THE THEORETICAL FUNDAMENTAL AND PRACTICE OF CONSTRUCTING AND USING INTERACTIVE SCREEN EXPERIMENTS IN TEACHING MECHANICAL MOVEMENT OF MATERIAL POINT TO DEVELOP ACTIVE AWARENESS, SELF-STUDY AND CREATIVITY OF THE STUDENTS. In this chapter, we mentioned the theoretical and practicle problems regarding the research topic such as: developing active awareness, the common activities in the physical awareness of the students; the stages of forming knowledge of mechanical movement of material points; applying the method of teaching discovery and problem solving in teaching mechanical movement of material points and organizing activities to promote active awareness, self-study and creativity of the students in high schools; physical experiments and using physical experiments in promoting active awareness, self-study and creativity of the students ; and the status of using physical experiments in teaching physics at high schools. 2.1. Develop physical awareness of the students The development of physical awareness of high school students also follow the development theory of Jean Piaget (1896- 1980) and Lev Vygotski (1896- 1934). At present, the two theories are considered the most important achievements of development psychology and be the foundation to build the new teaching methods and strategies. 2.2. Teaching about mechanical movement of material point Typically, in the teaching of physics in high schools, the study of a phenomenon of mechanical movement is usually done in the following order: - From the outward signs of any common movement, the concept of physical quantities characterizing the motion as displacement, velocity, acceleration is formed. - Then, depending on the specific characteristics of physical quantities characterizing the motion that led to the study of each particular motion. The study of each type of quality mechanical movement points after having the concepts specific to the most general motion is consistent with the structure of the program in ordinary physics today, matching the level of the students and matching time periods. When studying each kind of quality mechanical movement point, students should introduce the concept of motion (defined motions), conditions occur motion (with or without content, depending on the type of transfer concrete), understanding the relationship between the quantities characterizing the motion (the laws of motion). That means, teaching knowledge of quality mechanical movement of two teaching points include the following: - The phenomenon of a mechanical movement of material point: defining the movement, the conditions for the movement (whether or not this content, depending on the particular type of movement) - The law of motion / the relationship between the quantities characterizing motion 2.3. Developping positiveness, self-reliance and creativity of students in teaching physics under the method of discovery and problem solving 2.3.1. The method of discovery and problem solving Teaching discovery and problem solving, in the most common format, (according to V. Okon) is all the activities such as organizing problematic situations, defining problems (help the students to do this task themselves), provide them with necessary things to solve the problems, check the solutions and systemization and reinforcing the acquired knowledge. 2.3.2. Develop active awareness of students in studying physics under the method of discovery and problem solving In applying the view points on development of Jean Piaget and Lev Vygosky which is attached to the method of teaching discovery and problem solving, we would like to propose some of the measures to develop active awareness of students in styding physics as follows: - Use study cases (which contain the awareness conflicts and research problesm) à creating the imbalance (in terms of awareness) of the student à causing conflicts à the students have motivation to solve the problesm – the basis to sovle the research problems. - Control, direct the students to solve the problems in awareness (solve the research problems) by taking the students to “close development zone”, stimulate the students to solve the problems to supass the “close development zone”. As the result, the students must be active to think of the solutions to the problems, realizing problem solving and creating the “balance” and drawing conclusions. In order to develop the active awareness of the students in thinking of the solutions and solving the problems, it is necessary to use teaching aids, eperiement equipment to to stimulate and maintain the interest of students or the teachers can request the students to propose solutions, carry out experiments or improve the experiments. 2.3.3. Develop self-study of students in studying physics under the method of discovery and problem solving On the basis of the two theories by Jean Piaget and Lev Vygosky on development of awareness, applicable for the method of teaching discovery and problem solving, we would ike to propose some measures to develop self-study of students in studying physics as follows: Identify the “boundary” of “close development zone” – which according to Vygosky, is a “current level which is determined by the independence to solve the problem (task)” of the students to define the tasks which the students can do themselves to achieve the “balance” in terms of awareness. The tasks are specified as follows: +Noticing the awareness conflicts, the issues for research in cases which include the issues. + Identifying the necessary knowledge and skills to construct the measures to solve the problems in theoretical reasoning method. + Conducting the built measures according to the theoretical reasoning method to solve the problems. + Conducting experiments to check the hypothesis (consequences) or check the results from theoretical reasoning to draw the results. + Presenting and defending the results. + Finding out the application scope of the knowledge and apply the knowledge in the concrete cases. + Make connections of the knowledge with practice. It is possible to achieve the above-mentioned results. One of the solutions is to use experiments in teaching and studying physics with the method of teaching discovery and problem solving. 2.3.4. Develop the creativity of students in teaching physics under the method of discovery and problem solving In application of the theories on awareness development of Pieget and Vygosky in terms of teaching discovery and problem solving, the teacher needs to identify the “close development zone” and its “upper boundary”, which according to Vygosky, is the “nearest level the student can reach with the help of their friends and adulst when solving the problems” to help the students develop their creativity and from that, the teachers can direct the students in solving the problems in a creative way through the following specific measures: - Practice making hypothesis. Making hypothesis plays a very important role in scientific creativity. Construction of hypothesis relies mostly on intuitions, the diverse experience and profound knowledge of each field. Making hypotheisis cannot be spontaneous but must always have a base even if it is not really certain. - Practicing making experiments to check the found results and make theoretical reasoning or check the accuracy of the hypothesis. When we apply the method of teaching discovery and problem solving, helping the students to practice making experiments to check the found results and make theoretical reasoning or check the accuracy of the hypothesis is one of the most important measures to develop the creativity of the students. -Practicing application of knowledge and new skills to explain and forsee new physical phenomena. 2.4. Applying the method of discovery and problem solving in teaching in teaching mechanical movement of material points Teaching mechanical movement of material point include teaching two following: - The concept of mechanical movement of material point (defining the movement, the conditions for movement). - The law of motion / the relationship between the quantities characterizing motion For each knol, here we apply the method of discovery and problem solving to   to concretize the steps in the process of forming knowledge of mechanical movement of material point Table 2.1: Specific steps in forming the concept of mechanical movement of material point using method of teaching discovery and problem solving The stages in teaching discovery and problem solving Certain steps of the stages 1. Leading to the resoved issues Describe the processes, phenomena (which are the movements) of the same catagories 2. Declaring issues Declare the researched issues relating to the common signs, the nature of the motion was presented 3. Solving issues How to do the experiments, observe the movements and analyze the movements to discover the natural signs which are common for those movements 4. Conclusions Drawing conclusions for all the common natural signs of the movements. Bring a new definition for the movements which have the same sigs and make definitions for the movements and conclude the conditions to have these movements (this content may be repported or not depending on the type of movement. 5. Application Application and proposing the next issue for research Table 2.2: Specific steps in forming the rules / relationships of quantities characterizing motion of mechanical movement of material point using method of teaching discovery and problem solving The stages in teaching discovery and problem solving Certain steps o
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