Tóm tắt Luận án Study on species composition and distribution characteristics of fresh water crustacean (crustacea) in water bodies of Phong nha – Ke bang national park

The Decapodal, Copepoda, Cladocera and Ostracoda taxonomy are the popular species of crustaceans in freshwater in general, and in the water bodies of karst in particular. The biodiversity of these groups is reflected in the abundance of the species, number of individuals and distribution in the community. They play a major role in the food chain and food net of aquatic ecosystem. Many species are economically exploitable. In the world, many studies on the fauna in general and the freshwater crustaceans in the water bodies of karst in particular, including cave underground water were realised with interestingly results which many new genus and species have been found. In Vietnam, for the topographical karst in general and the limestone mountains of Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park in Quang Binh Province in particular, especially for underground water bodies in the cave underground water bodie there are very few research on biodiversity characteristics, species composition of the aquatic fauna in general and the crustacean group in particular. Previous studies on the environment and aquatic life in the Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park have recorded 33 freshwater crustacean species, of which 12 species are found in the Phong Nha cave. Of the species found in the river in the Phong Nha cave, two new Calanoida crustacean species for science are described. These new species and genus are currently being considered endemic to Vietnam. Certainly, these above results have not fully reflected the species composition and distribution characteristics of freshwater crustaceans in the topographical karst, espcially the cave underground water in the karst of Phong Nha-Ke Bang. Therefore, we propose the research topic: "Study on species composition and distribution characteristics of freshwater custacean in water bodies of Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park".

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0 MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING VIETNAM ACADEMY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY GRADUATE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY -------------***------------- LE DANH MINH STUDY ON SPECIES COMPOSITION AND DISTRIBUTION CHARACTERISTICS OF FRESH WATER CRUSTACEAN (CRUSTACEA) IN WATER BODIES OF PHONG NHA – KE BANG NATIONAL PARK Major: Zoology Code: 9 42 01 03 SUMMARY OF BIOLOGY DOCTORAL THESIS HÀ NỘI – 2018 1 This dissertation is submitted to the Committee of the Graduate University of Science and Technology Supervisors: 1. Asc. Prof. Dr. Ho Thanh Hai 2. Dr. Tran Duc Luong Referee 1: Referee 2:. Referee 3: The research has been carried out at the Graduate University of Science and Technology Date of Oral Presentation:,../../2018 Copy of this dissertation is available: National Library of Viet Nam Graduate University of Science and Technology 1 INTRODUCTION 1. The necessity of the research The Decapodal, Copepoda, Cladocera and Ostracoda taxonomy are the popular species of crustaceans in freshwater in general, and in the water bodies of karst in particular. The biodiversity of these groups is reflected in the abundance of the species, number of individuals and distribution in the community. They play a major role in the food chain and food net of aquatic ecosystem. Many species are economically exploitable. In the world, many studies on the fauna in general and the freshwater crustaceans in the water bodies of karst in particular, including cave underground water were realised with interestingly results which many new genus and species have been found. In Vietnam, for the topographical karst in general and the limestone mountains of Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park in Quang Binh Province in particular, especially for underground water bodies in the cave underground water bodie there are very few research on biodiversity characteristics, species composition of the aquatic fauna in general and the crustacean group in particular. Previous studies on the environment and aquatic life in the Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park have recorded 33 freshwater crustacean species, of which 12 species are found in the Phong Nha cave. Of the species found in the river in the Phong Nha cave, two new Calanoida crustacean species for science are described. These new species and genus are currently being considered endemic to Vietnam. Certainly, these above results have not fully reflected the species composition and distribution characteristics of freshwater crustaceans in the topographical karst, espcially the cave underground water in the karst of Phong Nha-Ke Bang. Therefore, we propose the research topic: "Study on species composition and distribution characteristics of freshwater custacean in water bodies of Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park". 2. Objective - Having sufficient data on the leading component of freshwater crustaceans in waters bodies of Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park 2 - Determining of the quantitative distribution of freshwater crustaceans in the study basins, along with the variability of this group in spatial and climatic seasons. - Proposal of measures for conservation and sustainable use of freshwater crustaceans resources in study area 3. Contents 3.1. To identifying the species composition of freshwater crustacean of the Calanoida, Cyclopoida, Harpacticoida (Copepoda), Diplostraca (Cladocera), Podocopida (Ostracoda), Amphipoda, Isopoda và Decapoda in the study area. 3.2. To comparing the number of species and composition of species in different water bodies, especially in groundwater and underground waters in the cave. 3.3.To determining the number of individuals of the studied species in the water bodies, and to consider the dynamics of their density in each type of water body in spatial and climatic seasons. 3.4.To studying the relationship between the basic characteristics of water environment (to, pH, DO, salinity ...) of the watershed and some biological parameters of freshwater crustaceans. 3.5. To proposing solutions for preservation and sustainable usage of wetlands and freshwater crustaceans in the study area. Chapter 1. LITERATURE 1.1. Studies on freshwater crustacean in the world 1.1.1. Studies on the classification of freshwater crustacean groups 1.1.1.1. Freshwater Copepoda Müller (1776), Jurine (1820), Milne-Edwards (1840), Brady (1883) did have the studies on taxonomy for Freshwater Copepoda based on morphological characteristics. Currently, in the world there are about 24,000 species of 2,400 genera and 210 families described. Among them, there are about 2,800 species of fresh water inland (Boxshall and Halsey, 2004; Boxshall and Defaye, 2010) In Malaysia and Indonesia there were the research works of Douwe (1901, 1907), Daday (1906), in Java and Sumatra; Fernando (1978) on Copepoda fauna in Malaysia. The research on the species in Cambodia was published from studies of Brehm (1951, 1954). The freshwater Copepoda of Thailand is investigated the most thoroughly from the 3 studies of Boonsom (1984), Chullasorn et al. (2008). Shen, et al. (1979) described 206 species of Crustacea Copepoda of inland waters of China. 1.1.1.2. Freshwater Cladocera Cladoceran was studied very early by Muller (1776, 1777, 1785) with a genus was first published. It can be said that the study of Lilljeborg (1901) described and drew illustrated of 102 species with a system Cladocera taxa in the most successful at that time. According to Martin and Davis, 2001, about 620 species were known as freshwater Cladocera ranked in four sets: Anomopoda (537 species), Ctenopoda (50 species), Haplopoda (one species) and Onychopoda (32 species) In Southeast Asian, the prominent works are of Richard (1891, 1895, 1896), Johnson (1956), which were realised in the island Java, Sumatra (Indonesia). In Malaysia, there were many studies realised by Johnson (1962, 1963, 1965, 1975), Idris (1983). In Thailand, there are studies by Boonsom (1984), Sanoamuang et al. (2001), Maiphae et al. (2005). Lastly, Chiang and Du (1979) have listed 136 species in 45 genera and 10 families in China. 1.1.1.3. Freshwater Ostracoda Studies on Crustacea Ostracoda taxonomy had been started in 1777- 1778 by Muller. According to Martens et al. (2008), there were 2,000 species of inland freshwater crustaceans in Ostracoda that have been recorded all over the world, most of them are free-living, only about 12 species of parasitic live, all belonging to the Podocopida According to Fernando (1982), there are 87 species of 26 genus recorded in Southeast Asia (Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines). Recently, Savatenalinton & Martens (2010) has a comprehensive research on the species composition of the Cypricercinae subspecies and describe six new species in this area. 1.1.1.4. Freshwater Decapoda Since the mid-nineteenth century, many studies on freshwater shrimps and crabs have been conducted in countries in Europe and Asia. According to De Grave et al. (2008), there were about 2,500 species of Caridea shrimp belonging to 31 families, living in saltwater, brackish and freshwater. Of these, about 655 are freshwater species. There were 1,476 species of freshwater crabs known in the world distributed in all geographic regions of animals, including 1,306 pure freshwater species. The two most abundant species were the Potamidae (505 species and 95 4 genera) and the Gecarcinucidae (344 species and 59 species), which were concentrated in Southeast Asia and South Asia. (Cumberlidge et al. (2009). According to Cumberlidge et al (2009), there were 10 countries with the largest number of freshwater crab species, of which 8 are in Asia: China (224 species), Thailand (101 species), Malaysia (92 species), India (78 species), Sri Lanka (50 species). In other countries, although not yet fully registered, have recorded relatively large number of species, such as Indonesia (83 species), Philippines (42 species), Vietnam (40 species). 1.1.2. Studies on the habitat and distribution of ecological groups living in water bodie in karst 1.1.2.1. The water bodies of karst Based on topography, hydrology, and water environment, the limestone karst can be divided into three major groups, including: Lotic Environments, Lentic Environments, Underground Aquatic Environments 1.1.2.2. The division of groups of living organisms in the aquatic environment Today, in the study of cave fauna, Schiner-Racovitz's classification system of the species of underground organisms is widely accepted and used: "Trogloxenes" includes species get lost or attracted to the humidity or food sources of the cave, but they do not always live in this environment and do not reproduce here. "Troglophiles" consist of living animals in the habitat underground, usually in shallow areas and caves; they also spawn here. However, these species can also be found in terrestrial environments. "Troglobites" consist of live animals in dark environments in deep soil or in caves. They deeply transform the biological and ecological features that adapt to the environment. Their entire life cycle start & end in this area and can not be found on the ground. 1.1.3. Crustacean species composition in fresh water areas in karst In South East Asia, there many studies had been realised by Ng (1988, 1991, 1992, 1996); Ng & Naiyanetr (1993). Camacho (2005) described two new genera with two new species (Paraeobathynella vietnamensis, Sketinella trontelji.) in Vietnam. Camacho et al (2011) described 1 new genus with 1 new species (Siambathynella laorsriae) in Thailand. Victor & Fernando (1981) describes a new subfamily, a new species of Ostracoda from Batu, Malaysia. In Copepoda, there are studies 5 by Menzel (1926), Chappuis (1931); Bruno & Cottarelli (1999), Pesce & Apostolov (1985); Brancelj et al. (2010) and Watiroyram et al. (2012) According to Stoch & Galassi (2010), 4,775 species of invertebrates have been recorded in cave basins around the world, of which the number of crustaceans accounts for most known species, including 3,400 species, contributes up to 71.2% of total species. In which the Copepoda group has about 1,000 species, the Ostracoda group has about 300 species, the Amphipoda group has about 950 species, the Bathynellacea group has about 200 species, and the Decapoda group has about 300 species. According to Bracelj et al.(2013), in Southeast Asia, 102 species of freshwater crustaceans have been recorded in the groundwater aquifers: most of which are Decapoda (34 species), Copepoda (23 species), Isopoda (21 species), Amphipoda (13 species), Syncarida (5 species), Thermosbaenacea (3 species) and Ostracoda 1 species. According to statistics, the Philippines has the largest number of species with 34 species, Thailand (24 species), Indonesia (17 species), Malaysia (14 species), Vietnam (9 species), Cambodia (3 species), Laos (1 species) and Myanmar have not recorded any species in this crustacean group. From 2013 to 2016, the reseachers continued to study and published 10 new crustacean species in Southeast Asia, including Vietnam: 3 species of shrimp, crabs of Decapoda family (Do & Nguyen, 2014). Ng & Vidthayanon, 2013; Cai & Vidthayanon, 2016), 6 species of Copepoda (Tran & Chang, 2014; Tran & Hołyńska, 2015, Boonyanusith et al., 2013; Watiroyram et al., 2015a, 2015b, 2016), a species of Thermosbaenacea family (Rogers & Sanoamuang L, 2016). 1.2. The study of freshwater crustacean in Vietnam 1.2.1. Reseach on taxonomy 1.2.1.1. Copepoda and Cladocera Prior to 1945, studies on the composition of the microcrustacean in Vietnam were mainly done by foreign authors. From 1960 up to now, many studies had been realised by Dang Ngoc Thanh (1965, 1977, 1980); Dang Ngoc Thanh, Ho Thanh Hai (1991, 1992, 2001). In 2001, Dang Ngoc Thanh and Ho Thanh Hai described the classification of 50 species of Cladocera and 31 species of Copepoda. Then there were studies by other authors such as Reid and Kay (1992), Hołyńska and Vu Sinh Nam (2000), Tran Duc Luong and Hołyńska (2015). Ho Thanh Hai, Tran Duc Luong (2007, 2008, 2009). 6 Tran Duc Luong (2012) recorded 105 species of Copepoda belonging to 45 genera, 13 families, in 3 oder of Calanoida, Cyclopoida and Harpacticoida. Among them, Calanoida has 39 species, Cyclopoida oder has 29 species, Harpacticoida has 37 species in the inland waters of Vietnam. 1.2.1.2. Ostracoda In Vietnam, the results of research on Ostracoda are very limited. Only one species was recorded by Brehm (1952) in Hai Duong. Dang Ngoc Thanh et al. (1980) described the taxonomy of eight species of the Cypridae family in fresh water bodies of North Vietnam. 1.2.1.3. Decapoda Freshwater crayfish (Decapoda) in Vietnam was studied by Edwardo from 1869. On freshwater shrimps, the works of Bouvier (1904, 1920, 1925), Sollaud (1914), recorded only five species in Vietnam including two species of Coutierella tonkinensis and Leander mani and three species of Atyidae: Caridina nilotica typica, C.weberi sumatrensis and C. tonkiensis In the period from 1945 to 1975, in the North of Vietnam, there were studies by Dang Ngoc Thanh (1961, 1967), Dang Ngoc Thanh and Nguyen Huy Yet (1972). In 1975, Dang Ngoc Thanh presented a list of 27 species of shrimp and crab found in the waters of North Vietnam. On freshwater shrimp, Dang Ngoc Thanh et al (1980) had documented and described eight new Caridina species; Then there were the authors N. X. Quynh, Peter, K. L. Ng and Liang X. Q. (2002). Dang Ngoc Thanh, Do Van Tu (2007, 2010) described six new species Atyidae for science in Vietnam. In the South there were some studies which had been realised by Nguyen Van Xuan (1978, 1979, 1981, 1992, 2003, 2004, 2006, 2010, 2011). On freshwater crabs, Dang Ngoc Thanh and Tran Ngoc Lan (1992) described two new species of the genus Orientalia (Orientalia rubra, O. tankiensis) from specimens collected in Nghe An and Thanh Hoa. Ng (1996), Peter, KL Ng & Darren, CJ Yeo (2001), Tohru Naruse, N. X, Quynh and Darren CJ Yeo (2011) continued to document and describe some other freshwater crab species in Vietnam. Dang Ngoc Thanh and Ho Thanh Hai (2012) provided a list of 42 species of shrimps and 36 species of crabs recorded in Vietnam. Do Van Tu et al. (2015) described a new genus and species in Vinh Tan, Binh Thuan province (Binhthuanomon vinhtan); Do Van Tu, Nguyen 7 Tong Cuong and Le Hung Anh (2016) described a new species of crab found in Huong Pagoda (Indochinamon Chuahuong); Hsu-Te Shih & Chao Huang (2016) described a new species of crab found in streams in Ha Lang District, Cao Bang Province (Tiwaripotamon pluviosum). According to data to date, Vietnam has recorded 43 species of shrimp and 41 species of freshwater crab. 1.2.2. Research on freshwater crustaceans in the karst of Vietnam In 1967, Borutzky record seven species of Harpacticoida (Copepoda) in the Viguierellidae and Canthocamptidae families. Subsequent studies of Camacho (2005), Brancelj (2005), Apostolov (2007). Tran Duc Luong et al (2011) recorded 39 species crustacean of Copepoda (18 species), Cladocera (12 species), Amphipoda and Decapoda in Trang An - Ninh Binh limestone area. Tran Duc Luong and Cheon Young Chang (2012) announced two new species for science: Microthridion thanhi, Nitokra vietnamensis. In the Phong Nha-Ke Bang karst area, some studies realised by Dang Ngoc Thanh and Ho Thanh Hai (2001) described two new species belonging to Calanoida in the underground river section of Phong Nha cave; Ho Thanh Hai et al. (2003) provided a list of species of aquatic organisms (phytoplankton, zooplankton, zoobenthos and fishes) in Phong Nha cave, including 12 species of microcrustacea (Copepoda and Cladocera) found in the river in the Phong Nha cave. Tran Duc Luong and Cheon Young Chang (2012) described a new Cyclopoidae in Thien Duong Cave. With the group of shrimps and crabs (Decapoda), Ng (1996) recorded a new species and genus of crab (Nemoron nomas) in the Dark Cave (Phong Nha - Ke Bang). In 2014, Do Van Tu et al described a new species of crayfish (Macrobrachium phongnhaense) in the Va cave of Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park. 1.3. Studies on Phong Nha - Ke Bang karst This part presents an overview of geography, climate, weather and hydrology in the study area. Types of water bodies in Phong Nha-Ke Bang karst. Based on differences in hydrological morphology, hydrological and water environment, it is possible to divide the types of water bodies in karst of Phong Nha - Ke Bang range into main types such as: streams, rivers, small floodplains seasonal are located in low tide, reservoirs and underground cave systems. Underground water in the cave 8 Based on survey data, drawings of caves in the limestone mountains of Quang Binh by Tran Nghi et al. (2003), Limbert (2012), conditions of hydrological and environmental. Accordingly, the water bodies in the karst mountain cave in Quang Binh can be divided into four main types: Water flows in the interstitial; underground river in the cave; puddle of temporary water reservoir and underground lake in the cave. CHAPTER II. OBJECT, LOCATION, TIME AND METHODOLOGY 2.1. Objects and scope of research - Objects of study: Freshwater crustaceans of the Calanoidae, Cyclopoidae, Harpacticoida (Copepoda), Diplostraca (Cladocera), Podocopida (Ostracoda), Amphipoda, Isopoda, Thermosbaenacea, Bathynellacea, Decapoda and some water environment indicators. rescue (T 0 , pH, DO, NH4 + , NO3 - , PO4 3- ). - Scope of study: Study on species composition, distribution, species composition and the number (density) of freshwater crustacean in the karstic waters of Phong Nha - Ke Bang National Park 2.2. Study sites The study in an area of waters of Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park, include: stream, reservoirs on the ground and underground water in cave. Location of survey sites. A total of 22 watersheds in the Phong Nha-Ke Bang were collected. In particular, there are many water bodies surveyed in many places, Son River (3 sites), Chay River (3 sites), Khe Rinh (1 sites), Phu Nhieu (1 sites) Tan Hoa (1 sites), Cha noi (1 sites), Yen Hop (1 sites), Khe van(1 sites), Khe Dat (1 sites) Thien Duong (1 sites), Rao Con (1 sites) Phong Nha cave (4 sites), Son Doong cave (4 sites), Thien Duong cave (3 sites), Dark cave (2 sites), E cave (4 sites), 35 Cave (1 sites), Va Cave (2 sites), Tu Lan cave (3 sites) and Yen Hop cave (1 sites). 2.3. The study period - 4 year: From 2013 to 2017 - Crustacean sample were inherited from the two surveys in 8/ 2011 and 4/2013. - During the implementation period, the thesis continues to survey and expand the study sites with 5 study tours in April 2014, August 2014, September 2014, April 2015 and August 2015 with the support of Young 9 Independent Subject, VAST Code DLT.02_14-15 sponsored by the Academy of Science and Technology. - Sample collection: 89 visits / 22 places - Number of specimens collected: about 1,100 specimens 2.4. Research Methodology 2.4.1. Research field The planktonic crustaceans were collected at the surface level (0 – 5m) by using a 100-150 µm mesh-sized plankton net. Collection of benthic crustacean was done by using a triangular bottom trawl, size 30 cm x 30 cm x 30 cm, mesh size 100 μm. In places of great depth, the benthic crustacean was collected by Petersen size 25cm x 25cm. Methods of collecting crustacean samples in cave as instructed by Camacho et al. (1992).
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