Tóm tắt Luận án Human Resources Quality in Socio-Economic Development of Lai Chau Province

In the national or local level, human resources quality (HRQ) is always the decisive factor for socio-economic development, for the assurance of income and enhancement of living standard for citizens. Lai Chau is a northern mountainous province with particular socio-economic conditions and facing much more difficulties than other localities in the country. For the rapid development, Lai Chau should change their ways of socio-economic development, in which the main orientation is basing on HRQ and technology. This is a big and difficult development problem for Lai Chau when their HRQ is of low quality. Education level of Lai Chau province human resources (HR) is much lower than that of the whole country and of other northern mountainous provinces.

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INTRODUCTION 1. The necessity of the thesis topic In the national or local level, human resources quality (HRQ) is always the decisive factor for socio-economic development, for the assurance of income and enhancement of living standard for citizens. Lai Chau is a northern mountainous province with particular socio-economic conditions and facing much more difficulties than other localities in the country. For the rapid development, Lai Chau should change their ways of socio-economic development, in which the main orientation is basing on HRQ and technology. This is a big and difficult development problem for Lai Chau when their HRQ is of low quality. Education level of Lai Chau province human resources (HR) is much lower than that of the whole country and of other northern mountainous provinces. Proportion of literate over-15 population only accounts for 60%, in which literacy rate in rural areas is much lower than that in urban areas. Over-15 population who has never gone to school makes up ¼ HR of this age. Trained over-15 HR of Lai Chau is only 11%. HR without technical and qualification level accounts for 90%. In addition, HR has been facing many problems to be solved on knowledge, skills and physical strength as well as quality and working behaviours. HRQ of the province is more and more lagged behind compared with HRQ of nearby localities and with the average level of the whole country. Confronted with that situation, the enhancement of Lai Chau HRQ is urgent to meet the requirement of the province’s socio-economic development. Therefore, studying to find out science-based solutions for the enhancement of Lai Chau HRQ plays an important role in the next period as well as in the long term. From the above reasons, I, a research student chose the topic “Human Resources Quality in Socio-Economic Development of Lai Chau Province” to be the thesis topic, specialty of Economic Management. 2. Purpose and meaning of the study of thesis topic Purpose of study: To provide scientific foundation for planning and adjusting strategies, plans and policies of Lai Chau Province’s socio-economic development; To contribute to defining new and modern development methods for Lai Chau Province, which is basing on HRQ and technology with the orientation of sustainable development. Theoretical meaning: To contribute to building, completing HRQ analyzing and assessing methods as well as HRQ enhancement methods in socio-economic development of the provincial locality; Practical meaning: Through the correct assessment of HRQ in socio-economic development of Lai Chau Province and proposal of HRQ enhancement methods to meet the requirements of rapid and sustainable development of Lai Chau Province in the next period, this thesis will make contribution to the implementation of strategic breakthrough for HR development, to the socio-economic rapid and sustainable development of Vietnam in general and Lai Chau Province in particular 3. Structure of the thesis Apart from introduction, conclusion, appendix and references, the content of this thesis includes 4 chapters. CHAPTER 1: OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH ON HUMAN RESOURCES QUALITY IN SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 1.1 Overview of research published inside and outside the country on HRQ in socio-economic development 1.1.1 Overview of research in foreign countries on HRQ in socio-economic development * Studies on human factor and role of high quality human in economic growth: Adam Smith (1776), “Wealth of Nations” indicates that capital accumulation is the decisive factor to produce material wealth. “Theory of skilled working” by Leontief (1953, 1956) interprets that skilled workers and human capital are the cause for the formation of structure and distribution of international commerce for industrial goods. Robert M. Solow (1956) gives his opinions that technical improvement determines economic growth. D. B. Keesing (1966) claims that experts working in an industrial country are the most important production factor, but the expertness cannot be achieved in the short time. “Theory of human capital” by T. W. Schultz, O. S. Becker, R. Ebald, Win asserts that through the investment in security, society and education, technical skills of human resources can be increased, HRQ can be enhanced, which makes ordinary HR become “human capital”, in order to directly or indirectly promote production growth, produce “increasing income”, remove effects of “decreasing income” and limits of capital and labour (ordinary) factors to ensure the long-term economic growth. Lucas (1986) reckons that a country has to focus on the development of production with the limited but HR-advantaged capital to increase economic growth rate. Romo (1989) analyzes and demonstrates the effect of knowledge about professionalization and human capital accumulation on economic growth, and these two factors can produce “increasing income”, be “the maintenance for permanent motivation of economic growth”. Scot (1991) emphasizes the effect of capital investment on economic growth because the origin of technical improvement and human capital accumulation, knowledge accumulation is capital investment, which means capital investment determines technical progress, thereby make determination to economic growth. * Studies on relations of HRQ with socio-economic sustainable development and HRQ enhancement method: Altinok (2007) shows positive effects of education quality and HRQ on economic growth; at the same time implies that HRQ is first determined by education quality, the leading factor to ensure sustainable growth and socio-economic sustainable development of each country. Changzheng Z. Kong Jin (2010) indicates that equality in education is in positive relationship with economic growth quality, in which equality in education is measured with Gini indicator in education and economic growth quality is measured by TFP. Malolm Gillis with collective authors (1987), considers the development of labour force market, labour policies and labour attraction via industrialization are ways to enhance HRQ initiatively, actively and in the long term. Khan, Mohsin (2005) concludes that: A country with higher education level and better health status has higher growth of per capita average income; he gives recommendation on policies that the government should invest more in education to increase human capital, enhance HRQ, therein has higher and more sustainable economic growth rate. Zorlu Sengucel (2009) interprets the particularly important role of solving the problem of HR management in the 21st century, which is solving the relationship between employees and organization, training of individuals and HR management organization. Nygel Finch (2013) generalizes green growth strategy proposed by APEC 2013 leaders, in which creativity is considered the main motivation of the growth. 1.1.2 Overview of research inside the country on HRQ in socio-economic development * Studies on HRQ and HRQ measuring criteria: In this scope, HRQ is studied with two points of view. The first one is that HRQ is understood a process from input quality, in-process quality, output quality and quality of results (effect sof HRQ in the long term). Thus, HRQ is a specific status of HR at a specific time or period. Studies of this direction include: Nguyen Hong Quang (2013), Nguyen Tiep (2005), Vu Ba The, Vu Dinh Hoe, Doan Minh Huan (2005), Tran Xuan Cau (2012) * Studies on effects of HRQ on socio-economic development, competitive capacity of the nation and provincial locality: Strong effects of HRQ on economic growth, employment and residents’ living standard are asserted in studies by Truong Minh Duc (2011), Le Thi Thuy (2012), Tran Xuan Cau (2012), VCCI (2008), Truong Thi Thuy Hang (2012), Nguyen Thi Nguyet (2008) * Studies on factors affecting HRQ, HR development to meet the requirements of regional and local socio-economic development: Factors decisively affect HRQ such as education and training, labour and employment policies, population, socio-economic condition, gender equality. Studies of this direction involves those by Bui Van Binh (2009), Le Duy Binh and other authors (2009), Le Thi Hong Diep (2009), Le Thi Thuy (2012), Doan Hung and other authors (2010), Nguyen Thi Giang Huong (2013). Another study direction is the effect of development of regional connection and HR demand on socio-economic development of the region and provincial locality, those in this direction include: Nguyen Van Huan and his coworkers (2012), Bui Thi Thanh (2008), Nguyen The Phong (2010), Nguyen Hoai Bao (2009), Tran Thanh (2012), Nguyen Giac Tri (2015), 1.1.3 Problems of the thesis topic not having been studied and solved by published projects Studies mentioned above (section 1.1.1) have not mentioned or deeply solved some important problems of the thesis topic, such as: - Not clearly defining and interpreting components of HRQ; system of criteria and targets for the evaluation of HRQ in the provincial locality; position, role of HRQ and enhancement of HRQ in socio-economic development of the provincial locality; effect of socio-economic development on quality and enhancement of HRQ in the provincial locality; HRQ enhancement methods, contents in governmental management to HRQ enhancement in the provincial locality - Not deeply studying and assessing real situation of HRQ and not proposing synchronous solutions for HRQ enhancement to serve the demand of socio-economic development of Lai Chau Province; not solving the problems of what should be done by the State and local authority, and how HRQ can be enhanced to meet the requirements of socio-economic development in Lai Chau Province 1.1.4 Problems focused to be studied and solved by the thesis - Building theoretical frame for the analysis and assessment of HRQ, HRQ enhancement methods, HRQ affecting factors and role of HRQ enhancement in socio-economic development in the provincial locality - Defining particulars in HR and economy – society of Lai Chau Province; objectively assessing real situation of HRQ, restrictions and their reasons to suggest solutions of high practical meaning in HRQ enhancement to meet the requirements of socio-economic development of Lai Chau. - Concentrating on the interpretation of problems on and role of the State and Lai Chau authority Province in HRQ enhancement to meet the requirements of the province’s socio-economic development 1.2 The thesis’s direction for the solving of study problems 1.2.1 Aims of the research * General aims: To clarify scientific basis for HRQ and suggest solutions for the enhancement of HRQ to meet the requirements of socio-economic development in Lai Chau Province in the next period * Specific aims: (1) To clearly define reasoning basis for HRQ in socio-economic development and factors affecting HRQ in the provincial locality; (2) To objectively assess real situation of Lai Chau HRQ, clearly determine strong and weak points and basic reasons affecting HRQ of Lai Chau Province; (3) To recommend main solutions to enhance HRQ of Lai Chau Province to meet the targets of socio-economic development of the province 1.2.2 Research questions The thesis focuses on answering 6 main research questions: (1) What are the main components of HRQ?; (2) What indicators, criteria and targets is HRQ reflected, measured and assessed by?; (3) What is the role of HRQ in the provincial locality’s socio-economic development?; (4) What is the real situation of Lai Chau Province HRQ?; (5) What are the requirements for HRQ of the province to be met for Lai Chau’s socio-economic development in the next period?; (6) What are methods and solutions to be used and implemented to enhance HRQ to meet the requirements of Lai Chau Province’s socio-economic development? 1.2.3 Research subject and limited scope of the thesis topic Research subject: is the reasoning and practical problems on HRQ and methods of HRQ enhancement in Lai Chau Province’s socio-economic development. Research limited scope: (1) In content: Concentrating on the interpretation and determination of theoretical frame for the analysis and evaluation of HRQ, methods for HRQ enhancement; Applying this theoretical frame in assessing real situation of Lai Chau HRQ and proposing methods for HRQ enhancement to meet the requirements of Lai Chau’s socio-economic development; (2) In research space: HR in Lai Chau Province, experience in HRQ enhancement of Da Nang and Ha Giang Provinces; (3) In time: Analyzing and assessing real situation of Lai Chau HRQ in the period of 2008-2013; Defining directions and measures to enhance HRQ of Lai Chau Province until 2020, vision to 2025. 1.2.4 Methodology and research method * Way to approach the problem of HRQ is in the “changing” state in the level of a provincial locality, in the relationship with socio-economic development of this locality. The performance of solving problem relating to HRQ enhancement of Lai Chau Province in the “open” system with the region and the whole country is made by the way of market economy and international integration. * Theoretical frame State-related factor Local authority- related factors Central authority- related factors Socio-economic environment-related factors HR structure HR qualification HR knowledge HR skills HR power Labour attitude and behavior Economic growth of the locality Social labour productivity Employment and unemployment of workers Residents’ living standard Main factors affecting HRQ of the locality HRQ of the locality Effects of HRQ on socio-economic development of the locality Picture 1. 1: Theoretical frame of HRQ Source: Summarized and constructed by the author * Method of collecting, processing and analyzing information The collection of secondary information is mainly from scientific works which have been published, from Statistics of Lai Chau Province, General Statistics Office and VCCI. The collection of primary information is carried out by surveying 3 groups of subjects in Lai Chau, which are Employees, Enterprises and State Civil Servants; Time of survey is Quarter IV/2013; The number of surveys collected is 832; the model used is Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) to process the results of survey, to give a conclusion about HRQ of Lai Chau Province and to give suggestions about policies and solutions. * Research methods are mainly analysis, demonstration, statistics, comparison and summarization. At the same time, interpolation and extrapolation are used to study and recommend some main measures to enhance HRQ in Lai Chau Province and to petition for conditions to implement the solutions. CHAPTER 2: REASONING BASIS FOR HUMAN RESOURCES QUALITY IN SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE PROVINCIAL LOCALITY 2.1 Human resources quality and role of human resources quality in socio-economic development of the provincial locality 2.1.1 Human resources quality and components of human resources quality in the provincial locality In this thesis, HR of a locality, a region or a nation are considered population of working age and population over working age with working ability, capacity to take part in production activities of a nation, a region or a locality both in quantity and quality. HRQ is quality of human resources, representing the relationship of components of HR nature, shown through criteria of HR structure, knowledge level, skills, physical strength, attitude and behaviour of human resources – those are factors to ensure economic growth, increase in labour productivity, assurance of employment, income and people’s living standard. Roles of human resources quality to socio-economic development of the provincial locality include: (1) human resources quality creates competitive advantage in development; (2) Human resources quality is the factor to ensure the sustainability of economic growth; (3) Human resources quality determines the size of human capital and creates increasing income; (4) Human resources quality creates motivation for economic sustainable development; (5) Human resources quality creates competitive advantage and moving competitive capacity of each locality and enterprise. 2.1.2 Criteria, reflecting indicators and methods to evaluate HRQ in socio-economic development of the provincial locality * Summarization and proposal of system of criteria and reflecting indicators for HRQ Bảng 2. 1: Criteria and HRQ indicators of the locality 1.      Human resources structure ·         Structure by age ·         Structure by seniority ·         Structure by gender ·         Structure of urban/ rural area 2.      Qualifications and skills of human resources ·         Educational qualifications ·         Professional/ Technical abilities ·         Knowledge · Skills of awareness · Social skills and behaviours · Technical skills 3.      About physical strength Physical health Spiritual health Social health 4.      About attitudes and behaviors Honesty and compliance Responsibility at work Industrial behaviors Activity and creativity Source: Summarization from studies and proposals of the author * Method of HRQ evaluation in socio-economic development of provincial locality In order to define and evaluate closely the level of HRQ of a provincial locality in any specific time, it is necessary to carry out a survey to select the model and a suitable quantitative economic model for the analysis and measurement of HRQ. In this thesis, the author selected Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) to evaluate HRQ of the provincial locality (specifically Lai Chau Province). 2.1.3 Effects of HRQ on socio-economic development of the provincial locality The thesis defines effects of HRQ on socio-economic development of the provincial locality in 6 following main aspects: (1) Effects of HRQ on the locality’s economic growth; (2) Effects of HRQ on the production value increase of economic sectors; (3) Effects of HRQ on social labour productivity; (4) Effects of HRQ on employment, unemployment of workers in the locality; (5) Effects of HRQ on income; (6) Effects of HRQ on poverty status. 2.1.4 Role, meaning of human resources quality enhancement in socio-economic development of the provincial locality First: To enhance HRQ is a basic way to improve economic growth speed and quality of the locality Second: To enhance HRQ is one of main ways to strengthen competitive capacity of the locality Third: To enhance HRQ is the main method to solve problems relating to employment and income of workers in the locality Fourth: To enhance HRQ is to increase infinite properties which can be exploited for socio-economic development in the condition of the limitation of other sources Fifth: To enhance HRQ in rural areas has the deciding meaning to socio-economic development of backward localities in mountainous provinces. 2.2 Main factors affecting HRQ of the provincial locality 2.2.1 Factors from the State 2.2.1.1 Factors from local authorities The thesis defines 4 main factors from the local authority affecting HRQ of the locality, including: (1) Planning human resources of the locality; (2) Developing health and health care; (3) Attracting and using manpower; (4) Educating and training jobs. 2.2.1.2 Factors from central authorities 3 main factors from central authorities affecting HRQ of the locality consist of: (1) Orientation of national socio-economic development; (2) Strategies and plans for HR development of the nation; (3) National development policies for HR 2.2.2 Factors from the local socio-economic environment 2.2.2.1 Economic factor 5 main factors from local socio-economic environment affecting HRQ include: (1) Growth rate and economic development level of the locality directly affecting HRQ; (2) Structure of economic sectors; (3) Real situation of technical infrastructure; (4) Average income; (5) Employment and unemployment rate 2.2.2.2 Tradition and cultu
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