Ecogeomorphology research as a base for appropriate teresstorial planning at Nghe An province

At present, Vietnam as well as many countries in the world is facing with more and more serious environmental problems caused by themself development activities. As the consequence, caused exhaust of natural resources, increase natural disasters, and finally harmful for the development of future generation. One of the main reasons is the limitation of the knowledge on natural system as a scientific base for appropriate development planning under tendency of sustainable development. The sustainable development, in term of harmony among economic benefit, environmental and social welfare is inevitable demand for any countries, regions. Nghe An province was set master planning to the year 2020 at vision to year 2030, in which the ecology, environmental and social issues was mention, but the development choice still remain obstacles by the lack of scientific base. At certain circumstance point out the need of the study as a base for territorial planning in term of sustainable development. At the result, the thesis dealing with study named “Eco-geomorphology research for appropriate terrestrial planning at Nghe An province”.

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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION VIETNAM ACADEMY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY SIENCE AND THCHNOLOGY UNIVERSITY ----------------------------- TUAN TONG PHUC ECOGEOMORPHOLOGY RESEARCH AS A BASE FOR APPROPRIATE TERESSTORIAL PLANNING AT NGHE AN PROVINCE PhD Theme: Geomorphology and Paleogeography Hanoi – 2018 MINISTRY OF EDUCATION VIETNAM ACADEMY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY SIENCE AND THCHNOLOGY UNIVERSITY ----------------------------- TUAN TONG PHUC ECOGEOMORPHOLOGY RESEARCH AS A BASE FOR APPROPRIATE TERESSTORIAL PLANNING AT NGHE AN PROVINCE Professional: Geomorphology and Paleogeography Code: 9.44.02.18 PhD theme: Geomorphology and Paleogeography Ssupervisors: 1. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Anh Lai Huy 2. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Phai Vu Van Hanoi – 2018 1 PREFACE 1. The need of the thesis At present, Vietnam as well as many countries in the world is facing with more and more serious environmental problems caused by themself development activities. As the consequence, caused exhaust of natural resources, increase natural disasters, and finally harmful for the development of future generation. One of the main reasons is the limitation of the knowledge on natural system as a scientific base for appropriate development planning under tendency of sustainable development. The sustainable development, in term of harmony among economic benefit, environmental and social welfare is inevitable demand for any countries, regions. Nghe An province was set master planning to the year 2020 at vision to year 2030, in which the ecology, environmental and social issues was mention, but the development choice still remain obstacles by the lack of scientific base. At certain circumstance point out the need of the study as a base for territorial planning in term of sustainable development. At the result, the thesis dealing with study named “Eco-geomorphology research for appropriate terrestrial planning at Nghe An province”. ECOGEOMORPHOLOGY RESEARCH AS A BASE FOR APPROPRIATE TERESSTORIAL PLANNING AT NGHE AN PROVINCE 2. Objectives of the study Study the ecogeomorphology conditions at Nghe An province as a scientific base for providing rational territory planning under the line of sustainable development. 2 3. Research theme - Overview of ecological geomorphology; - Analyzing and evaluating the natural and socio-economic characteristics that govern the ecogeomorphology pattern of Nghe An province; - Analyze and assess the ecogeomorphological pattern of Nghe An province - Proposing orientations territorial planning based on geography science for ecogeomorphology zoning for the goal of harmony between development and environmental protection. 4. Scope of the study - Scientific objects: geomorphology forms and their development dynamic in the whole ecosystems; - Geography scope: Nghe An province territorial; - Scientific scope: ecogeomorphology study at Nghe An province. 5. Defending issues - The influence of latitude and region characters goes in hand with increasing of human activities, those defining the ecogeomorphological pattern of Nghe An. As the result, the Nghe An territorial was set by 5 regions with 14 sub-region ecogeomorphology by their whole pattern. - The ecogeomorphology zoning units are scientific and practical basis for proposing orientations for rational use of natural resources, restoring ecological systems and protecting the environment towards sustainable development. 3 6. The new contribution of the thesis - Contribute to the development of ecogeomorphology research methodology - a new science branch in Vietnam; - Identification of ecogeomorphological stable indices at Nghe An territorial; - The Nghe An ecogeomorphology pattern study was present at Ecogeomorphological map with scale 1/200.000 as a scientific and practical basis for proposing sustainable solutions. 7. The scientific and practical significance of thesis Scientific significance: Contribute to the development of the ecogeomorphological study in Vietnam; beyond the geography system point of view, clarifying the nature objects and their changing process go in hand with the actual socio-economic activities and related environmental issues. It then recommends the direction of sustainable socio-economic development. Therefore, the thesis has contributed to improve the methodology in territorial research for the purpose of rational use of natural resources and environmental protection. Practical applications: The recommendations for orienting development activities given for each ecogeomorphology unit is a scientific basis for local policy makers in the implementation of development master plan at Nghe An province up to year 2030. 8. Document basis 8.1. The participated theme relate to the thesis + Thong Mai Trong et al. Use geographic information systems and environmental management software to build a database for environmental planning. Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment (2001-2003). 4 + Thong Mai Trong et al. Environmental planning of Vinh city, Nghe An province. Nghe An Urban (2002-2004). + Thong Mai Trong et al. Prevention, control of pollution and environmental restoration. Results of P1 activities of the Vietnam- Sweden Cooperation Program on Strengthening Land and Environmental Management Capacity (2005). + Anh Lai Huy et al. Assessing the situation and proposing measures to prevent and minimize floods and floods in Nghe An province. Nghe An Science and technology division (2008-2010). + Tuan Tong Phuc et al. Study and elaborate environmental protection planning for Thai Hoa urban center in the 2008-2020 period, taking into account the following years. Nghe An Science and technology division (2008-2010). 8.2. References to content related to the thesis + Periodic and supplementary monitoring data on environmental quality of Nghe An province conducted by Center for Environmental Monitoring and Technique, 2005-2014. + 60 research papers on theories of territorial natural resource assessment, theories on integrated approach, theories of environmental assessment, environmental planning and development and 37 environmental documents, natural resources, socio-economic and environment; 5 thesis related to study area; 5 websites. 9. Theme structure Apart from the introduction, conclusion and reference materials, the contents of the thesis include 3 chapters: Chapter 1: Rationale and methodology Chapter 2: Elements of ecological landscape formation in Nghe An province 5 Chapter 3: Ecological geomorphology of Nghe An province The dissertation is presented in 143 pages, 32 tables of data, 28 drawings (maps, maps), 107 references in Vietnamese and foreign languages. CHAPTER 1. Rationales and Methodology 1.1. Theoretical foundation for ecological geomorphology 1.1.1. Concept of ecological geography a). Definition Darwin (1881), referring to the aspect of ecologic geomorphic when study the role of earthworms in soil formation and vegetation development [63]; Cowles HC (1899) examines the ecological relationship of Lake Michigan sand dunes [68]. They are seemed to be the primary authors on this branch science. The ecogeomorphology terminology also used by scientists such as Timofeev DA (1991), Hupp et al. (1995), Butler et al. (1995), Julie Simard J (2010), Joseph M et al. (2011), Butler David R (2013) ... According to Russian Geographic Dictionaries (2015), the eogeomorphological term was defined as "... study the influence of terrain and terrain processes on organisms, including humans "[91]. Although there is still remain a gap among the authors, the core of ecgeomorpholocial study is considered to be a geomorphology discipline, using an ecological approach based on multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary principles, towards sustainable development. b). Objects and tasks of ecological geomorphology The object of the study is the interactions between geomorphologic systems and human society (broadly speaking, the biological world, including human beings). The mission has two tasks: 6 1). Analyzes the state of geomorphologic systems and their changes by the influence of natural and human processes. Addressing this task helps explain the structure and development of different geomorphologic systems and provides links between geomorphologic systems and the environment, including human activity. 2). Analysis of ecosystem status and changes due to geomorphological characteristics and their forming dynamics. With information on the structure of the system, it is possible to determine the type and level of human impact on the system and the adverse effect of the system on human well-being. 1.1.2. Overview of ecogeomorphological studies a. In the world Studies on the dominance of topography to the development of biosphere, or vice versa, the impact of bio factors on terrain have been developed in parallel with traditional geological and biological sciences. It began in the late eighteenth century, but has been quiet for some decades, with representatives such as Timofeev, Gеrаsimov, Olson, Hack and Goodlet. Timofeev "Ecogeomorphology, objects, objectives and tasks"; Martin and Melissa Parsons "Ecogeomorphology: an interdisciplinary approach to river science". Sergio Fagherazzi et al. “Ecogeomorphology of tidal mash”. Wheaton J.M identifies the specializations of science, especially those related to the ecogeomorphology in the traditional sciences, as shown in Figure 1.2. b. In Viet Nam Anh Lai Huy, Tuan Tong Phuc, 2005 "Ecological geomorphology in territorial organization planning (taking Ke Go nature reserve as an example)". Anh Lai Huy, Tuan Tong Phuc, 2009 "Ecological 7 approach to water supply solutions for Na Son town, Dien Bien Dong district, Dien Bien province". The 2 paper was primary present ecogeomorphology concept in Vietnam. The papers content dealing with geomorphological attributes be able to support different types of territorial organization and at the same time reflect the ecological risks. Recently, Thao Nguyen Van (2015), in the PhD thesis "Research on terrain changes with coastal forest ecosystems in Quang Ninh province on the basis of application of remote sensing technology and GIS" presenting geomorphology objects and bio factors and their relationships. In 2016, Vu Van Phai and his colleagues given the set of ecogeomorphology study in general geomorphology science in particular and the earth sciences in general, and also affirmed that this is the new research direction spotted in our country. 1.2. Application aspects of ecogeomorphology The Ecogeomorphology study is an applied research approach, particularly for the rehabilitation and management of ecosystems based on interactions between landform and biogeography. However, in this study, the most common aspect is annexation with territorial organization in the categories of territorial organization, development planning and environmental protection planning. 1.3. Approaches and views Use a systematic approach to examine the interrelationship between the of material and energy cycle within and between the ecogeomorphological units. This approach is based on integrated geographic perspectives and sustainable development for territorial units. This approach is based on integrated perspective, a territorial perspective and a view of sustainable development. 8 1.4. Research Methods The methods used for the study included: data collection and analysis; field survey; remote sensing; geomorphological analysis; geodynamics formation; geomorphology generation; combo evaluation; mapping and geographic information systems; evaluate the ecogeomorphology stability index. The techniques for determining the ecogeomorphology stability index: each class of object information with an evaluation scores of the stability, and then normalized to a scale of 0 to 1. The smallest score get value of 0 and the highest score get value of 1. The ecogeomorphology stability index was given by an average value of overall normalized element factors. 1.5. Research progress The research process shown in Figure 1.6, consisting of 3 steps: data collection, field survey, update data, checking field trip; Analyse and evaluate the characteristics of Nghe An territorial, determine the stability index, ecogeomorphological zoning; Proposed rational use of the Nghe An province. Chapter 1 summary Ecogeomorphology concept was introduced over hundred year ago. Even that, the ecogeomorphology study was new research style in Vietnam. The ecogeomorphology documents shows the differences among authors with some debate, but the main thing point out that Ecogeomorphology research branch is dealing with interrelationship among biology and geomorphology system within whole nature system. Those point of views as a base for determining object, target and methodology on ecogeomorphology research, and also helpful for territorial planning in term of sustainable development. 9 Chapter 2. THE ECOGEOMORPHOLOGICAL FORMING FACTORS AT NGHE AN PROVINCE 2.1. Natural characters 2.1.1. Geography position Nghe An province located at central of North Central region, boundaries with Thanh Hoa province at northen, Ha Tinh province at southern, Lao republic at weastern and east sea at eastern. 2.1.2. Geometric topographic characters Gemetric topographic character (slop, vertical and horrizon dissection, wetness index) was obtained from dem base on topography map at scan 1/50.000. Those as the contribution to ecogeomorphology pattern at Nghe An. The geometric maps shows the big distingust among locations, expectialy at mountain area. 2.1.3. Geology characters Primery set of local geo-material and topo energy, with two strata-tectonic zones: Truong Son array and west-north block. The difference of tectonic moverment velocity at each areas with their matterial play the important role in the set of exogenous processes as well as their intencity. At Nghe An, the rock forms was diversity, those include indogenous rock (mainly intrude magma, and some bazan area at Thai Hoa, Nghia Dan district), metamophic rock (marble blocks at Quy Chau, Quy Hop distrtics), and about 2/3 of the province is sedimentary rocks. 2.1.4. Climate character Nghe An province influenced by moonsoon climate with cold winter, and two season: hot, hight humid and rainfall at summer, and cold at 10 winter. The annual rainfall about 950m-2000m, and also divided to two season is low and hight rallfall level. The combination of temperater, rainfall and ecology criterias presentes 24 eco-climate forms. 2.1.5. Hydrology condition Nghe An have 7 basin, inwhich 6 short an small basin located seaside. Only Ca Basin have an area 15.346 sq.km, take up 93,1% province terristorian, and the river lengh is 361 km. Annualy, the province land received 13,5 bil curbic metric surface water, equavalency with 820mm surface, and Cv reached 0,47. The Nghe An surface water resources divided to 5 region with difference on exploitation potention, ranged: (1) Hoang Mai area; (2) Upper part of Ca river basin; (3) Middle part of Ca river basin; (4) Hieu river basin; (5) Downstream Ca river basin. 2.1.6. Geohydrology character Nghe An have three aquiffer groups: hole aquiffers; cracking aquiffers; and almost no water block. In general, the ground water resources at poor to middle level. The potention to ground water exploitation was limited at certain social-economic condition. 2.1.7. Pedology character According to gengerous classification, the soil type at Nghe An located in two group (sedimentary and weathering soil). Sedimentary soil 247.774 ha occupied 16% province area. Inspite lown proportion, but those are hight social economic activities go in hand with hight sentivity with global climate change and sea water level rising. The weathering soil almost using for forestry sector, but was recorded with the sigh of negative changing. 11 2.1.8. Biology character The trend of moverment from natural ecosystem to human ecosysterm was dominate. Event at Natural part, Natural prevention regions have record the vilence activities. Accoding to biology statistical, the province have 2.608 plants species, 211 vascular plants family. The animal branch also more than less diversity with 490 vertebrate and amphibians species, in which 124 mammal species, 293 birds species, 50 reptiles species and 23 frog species; 390 insect species; the water animal belong 5 set, 14 family and 51 sub-family. 2.2. Social economic condition 2.2.1. Economic sectors Positive changing on economic structure at period 2010-2016 (fig.2.12). In other hand, economic development cause pressures on environmental, in which higher pressures at lowland in compare with mountain land. Event in mountain area, go in hand with vegetation degradation, there are occurred some hotspots of mineral exploitation and waste dumping, those actually need to pay attention. Figure 2.12. Economy structure change during period 2010-2016 Tổng GTXS Năm 2010: 51.911.449 tr.đ Năm 2016: 129.535.431 tr.đ 12 2.2.2. Land used character At lowland area, the economic model have change as respont to short time period market demend, that cause harmfull to environment, but the economic benefit still remain debate. The substantial land was change to infrastructure building, industry, urban, those have high potention for environmental risk At mountain land, model upland rise can meet at many area, but their economic benefit very limited and cause many environmental problem. The forestry land also have low benefit, with cultivate species those limited on soil reclarmation. At national park, natural conserve areas, allway faced with violence activities. The low economic benefit is become obtacle for development, expectially with tribal groups. 2.3. Environmental situation and natural disaster 2.3.1. Environmental situation According to annual reports of environmental monitoring program by Nghe An Resources and Environmental service during period 2010- 2014 shows that: the increasing of resources exploitation for economic development cause some adverse effects, such as mineral exploitation industry, forestry industry, hydroelectric, infrastructure building. In addition, the tourism development projects also cause some problems in environmental issue and local livelihoods. 2.3.1. Natural disaster influence to ecogeomorphology character Those can harm to ecosytem and finally cause demage to human benefit. Beyond abover point of view, at Nghe An province, the natural disaster was classified by: soil erosion, landslide, flood, beach and bank erosion, santy intrusion, geology fraction, earthquake and tsunami. In which, the soil errosion occured in vast area, that slowly reducing production efficiency but do not attractive to people, but in 13 long period will become disater; the flash floods, flooding, landslide only occured in narrow area, but ussually goes with the lose of lives, infrastructure and as consequence have more attactivenes. 2.4. Synthetic assessment of natural and social factors to ecogeomorphology balance 2.4.1. Indigenous factors group The rocks style:more then less diversity, but main area proportioin is sandy, shale stone. The intrusion rocks located at some magma blocks and bazan eruption at Nghia Dan. The quaternary sediment located at seaside land and bottom velleys. The tectonic mo