Tóm tắt Luận án Develop the ethnic minority primary school teaching staff in the Northwest to meet the requirements of educational & training innovation

Vietnam is a multiracial country with 53 ethnic minorities. They mainly live in far and wild places, borders and etc. Where have many difficulties in socioeconomic development. The matter of ethnic minority human resources development in general, and educational human resources to teach them in particular was a special concern of Vietnam’s Party and State: “The issue of developing Education & Training, improving quality of ethnic minority human resources which includes expanding teaching and learning minority languages; rising the quantity and quality of the group of ethnic minority teachers”; “ Developing the group of teacher and management officers is the key phase to meet the demands of education & training innovation.”

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1 INTRODUCTION 1. Reasons for choosing this topic Vietnam is a multiracial country with 53 ethnic minorities. They mainly live in far and wild places, borders and etc. Where have many difficulties in socio- economic development. The matter of ethnic minority human resources development in general, and educational human resources to teach them in particular was a special concern of Vietnam’s Party and State: “The issue of developing Education & Training, improving quality of ethnic minority human resources which includes expanding teaching and learning minority languages; rising the quantity and quality of the group of ethnic minority teachers”; “ Developing the group of teacher and management officers is the key phase to meet the demands of education & training innovation.” The Northwest is the hardest region with the most population of ethnic minorities, so its pupils are mainly in minority groups. One of the factors limiting its educational development is the language difference in teaching and learning. At home and public places, the pupils communicate in their own mother-tongues, so they need a teacher who can use those languages, understand their culture and customs to help them integrate in the educational environment without language gaps. At last, the teacher can help pupils learn Vietnamese and widen their knowledge quickly and favorably. Ethnic minority elementary teaching staff in the Northwest region has risen quickly in recent years. To develop the education, the teaching staff has contributed to generalize elementary education completely, making opportunities for ethnic minority children and bringing them educational equality. They, however, has also many insufficiencies in their abilities and teaching skills. The cause of the shortcomings is due to ethnic characteristics, regional and historical-culture, economy, the chances of having information and educational enviroment, ... Primary education is first state of the overall education , which is the basis to form the initial, comprehensive development of the human personalities and set a solid foundation for the next level of education. The elementary teaching staff in general and the ethnic minority one in particular are the key factors for the quality of elementary education. Thus, it is necessary to train and foster a local teaching staff with qualified teaching abilities and knowledge that are suitable for each region, each race and meet the demands of education innovation. Besides, it is also important to make a good working environment and treatment, as well as to use these teachers in such a way that let them to be pleased with their employment, and be wedded to “planting people” career in their hometown. For those reasons, the author selects the subject of “Develop the ethnic minority primary school teaching staff in the Northwest to meet the requirements of educational & training innovation” as the topic of this thesis. 2. Research purposes The purposes of this research paper is to study argument basis by the way approaching the work of developing human resources and the group of ethnic 2 minority elementary teacher development, by that creating reasons to propose a number of possible solutions on developing the group of ethnic minority elementary teachers in the North-West region in order to meet the demand of education and training innovation. 3. Research object and subject 3.1 Research object Elementary school teachers and Elementary school teaching staff in Northwest region. 3.2 Research subject Developing the local group of ethnic minority elementary teachers in the North- West region to meet the demands of educational and training innovation. 4. Scientific theory If supposing the solutions by the way approaching human resources, teaching career standards are suitable to characteristics (of each race and region) and the demand of education innovation of each/multi race and each/multi culture in the community of ethnic minorities by each region, minor region, totally influencing on basis phases of the developing the group of ethnic minority elementary teachers process, these factors will contribute to developing the group of ethnic minority elementary teachers, meeting the demand of education innovation, simultaneously contributing experiences which the ethnic minorities regions with corresponding socioeconomic conditions can consult. 5. The range of the study - The management subject: Developing the group of ethnic minority elementary teachers in the North-West region concerns various management subjects, in this thesis the main management class is Education & Training Service. - The range of the study: Studying argument basis in developing the group of ethnic minority elementary teachers by the way approaching human resources development; surveying, evaluating the real situation of the group of ethnic minority elementary teachers during the latest 3-5 years (focusing on races of Mường, Mông, Tày, Thái which have a predominant population in the provinces of Northwest region); Proposing solutions on developing the group of ethnic minority elementary teachers in the North-West region which can be applied after 2015. 6. The task of the study (1). Studying argument basis in developing the group of ethnic minority elementary teachers in the background of education innovation; (2). Evaluating the real situation of the teachers, developing the group of ethnic minority elementary teachers in the North-West region; (3). Proposing possible solutions on developing the group of ethnic minority elementary teachers in the North-West region to meet the demand of education innovation; (4). Surveying, exploring the necessity, the realization of the proposed solutions; and examining a number of contents of the two solutions proposed by the thesis. 3 7. Methodology and research method 7.1 Methodology 7.1.1 The system approaching: developing the group of ethnic minority elementary teachers is a system including various factors which have organic and mutual relationship with each other between factors concerning developing group of teachers; between elementary schools in the North-West region and of the whole elementary education system. 7.1.2 The human resource development approaching: applying the approaching method for the human resources development to study solutions in developing the group of ethnic minority elementary teachers in the North-West region with the purpose of improving the quality of them suitable to local characteristic, meeting the demand of education innovation. 7.1.3 The standardizing approaching: developing the group of ethnic minority elementary teachers in the North-West region must base on the regulations of the education laws and career standards in elementary teacher of Education & training ministry; and well meeting the demand of education innovation. 7.1.4 The ability approaching: the group of ethnic minority elementary teachers must have full of professional ability. The ability to approach on ethnic minority elementary teachers means pointing out necessary needs and criterion, especially teaching potential, teaching potential in special schools/classes meeting the demand of education innovation. 7.1.5 The multicultural approaching: taking advantages of culture of ethnic minorities in developing the group of ethnic minority elementary teachers will help the group of ethnic minority elementary teachers to improve their professional ability better and attribute enriching Vietnamese traditional culture. 7.1.6 The practical approaching: the agreement with specific characteristics of the North-West region as well as particular features of the group of ethnic minority elementary teachers (of regions, areas and races) in every province in the North- West region; and the demand of education & training innovation. 7.2 Research methods 7.2.1 Theoretical research methods: analyzing, summarizing, organizing, generalizing in researching material resources in order to construct argument basis of the thesis. 7.2.2 Group of practical researching methods - Experience summarizing method: summarizing experiences from real exercise in developing the group of ethnic minority elementary teachers of Education & Training Services, Education & Training Bureau and elementary schools through yearly reports; concerning materials on books, internet etc. - Questionnaire surveying method: questionnaire surveying on the real situation of the group of ethnic minority elementary teachers, real situation in developing the group of ethnic minority elementary teachers in the North-West region; questionnaire surveying on the necessity and the realization of the solutions. - Interview method: interviewing management officers and ethnic minority elementary teachers in elementary school about the real situation in developing the 4 group of ethnic minority elementary teachers in the North-West region, gathering the results to be the basis for proposing solutions. - Observing method: directly observing class-hours of ethnic minority elementary teachers; teaching activities in school; material facilities, teaching equipment of schools. - Educational products of schools researching method: researching on teaching plans, lesson plans, documents, self-improving plans etc. of ethnic minority elementary teachers. - Typical researching method: carrying on typical researching in three elementary schools/ 4 districts in difficult and even especially difficult area of Lao Cai province. - Professional method: asking for opinions of experts in educational management and pedagogy; administrators of Education & Training Services, Education & Training Bureau, elementary schools; administrators of education universities (mainly provincial universities) about solutions suggested by the thesis. - Examination method: carrying on examinations to test a number of contents of some solutions suggested by the thesis. 7.2.3 Data analyzing methods: using mathematical statistics; using charts, diagram, math table etc. 8. The point guards 8.1. The primary teachers from ethnic minority are the human resources of ethnic minority’s education fields and ethnic minority region. They have a strong role in the multicutural education enviroment, it is an important internal force in decision quality, effective in education to minority children, guarantee the quity in enducation for minority children. Therefore, the devolopment of primary teachers must be done and follow the standpoint to develop the human resource to ensure human resources development strategy of ethnic minority, individual approach way, strengthening the role of school-level management; enhancing the ability of career match suitable for people and regions to satisfy the requirements of education , contribute the goal of steady development education. 8.2. The reality of primary teacher development in the Northwest native, besides all the things achieved, there still exist some shortcomings in the unstable number of teachers; the structure is not balance; the quality in not satisfied the current requirements and the new requirements of Education, and not consistent with the characteristics of the Northwest. 8.3. The development of primary teachers from ethnic minorities in Northwest native not only ask for interesting team development (stable settlement of the quantity, improving the quality, harmony of the body structure is ethnic composition), but also concentrate on improving teaching skill of teachers from ethnic minorities. It is suitable for specific education in ethnic minority areas, to satisfy the requirements of innovation educational, ensure the conformity of the needs, benefit to create the motivation for every teacher and the development of strategy goal for each school, each province and the Northwest region. 5 9. New Contribution of the thesis 9.1 Contributing to codify and develop theories about the development of primary teachers in general and the development of primary teachers from ethnic minorities in Northwest in particular to satisfy the requirements of innovation educational, including the use of new approach method: Approaching to develop the human resource – Approaching the capability – Approaching the multicultural. 9.2. It is possible to review the current status of the ethnic minority primary school teaching staff and the development of this type in the Northwest; to identify strengths and weaknesses based on the requirements of educational innovation; and the specific requirements of the Northwest. 9.3 Proposing the principles and 5 solutions of development the primary teacher teams from ethnic minorities in Northwest in scientific way, suitable for particular areas, to satisfy the requirements of innovation educational and can be used to refer to the people in many religions. 10. The structure of the thesis Chapter 1: The base argument of developing primary teachers group of ethnic minority in the context of education and training innovation. Chapter 2: The development status of primary teachers from ethnic minority in Northwest region. Chapter 3: The solution to develop the primary teacher group from ethnic minority to satisfy the requirements of educational and training innovation. CHAPTER 1 THE BASIC ARGUMENT OF DEVELOPING PRIMARY TEACHER GROUP FROM ETHNIC MINORITY IN THE CONTEXT OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING INNOVATION . 1.1. Overview of researching on problems 1.1.1. The research on teacher group 1.1.1.1. The role of teacher group All domestic and international research on the teaching staff have confirmed one of the most important resources to decide the development of the high school in general and secondary school in particular are teacher group which play a decisive role. 1.1.1.2. The Professional Standard for teachers – the requirement of innovation education The domestic and foreign researches on the development of teachers in training issues are based on the standard of “The Ministry of Education and Training” (MoET) of each country. In Vietnam, the professional standard for teacher are regulated by Decision No. 14/2007/QD-BGDDT. This regulation is used to this thesis and adding some criteria which are specific in nature and require the requirements of educational innovation for teachers from the ethnic minorities. 6 1.1.2. The research on human resource development and development of teachers group from ethnic minority 1.1.2.1. The human resource development- the human resources of ethnic minority The research on human resource development, the human resource from ethnic minority are concerned. However, these offering solutions was not synchronizing comprehensively yet, not paying attention to the ethnic and each region and sub-region. 1.1.2.2. The development of teacher group – the teacher group from ethnic minority. Some researches before have shown the feature of people and regions but it was not specific and pretty general in many levels. It was not separated out in each person. It should be able to be true with these ethnic groups, but does not match the other. 1.1.3. General comments The author has made a great contribution of theories and practices from the issue of methodology about the development of human resources; the human resource development policies; the issue of development to improve the human resources plan. However, the issue of development the primary teacher group from ethnic minority in Northwest was not researched and resolved satisfactorily. The thesis is going to inherit the achievements gained and explain deeply to the issue: “The development the primary teacher group from ethnic minority in Northwest area to satisfy the requirements of education and training”. 1.2. The primary teacher group from ethnic minority 1.2.1. The concept of the teacher and the teacher group from ethnic minority The concepts are clarified in the thesis as: the concept of teacher, teacher group, primary teacher, primary teacher group from ethnic minority, ethnic minority For example, the concept of ethnic minorities: Vietnamese (nation- political community - society is managed by a state, set on a certain territory). It includes many ethnic communities (nationalities – in some cases, the author uses the word “Ethnic Group “to replace the word “Nation “. So, the ethnic minority is the ethnic group whose population is less than majority nation in Vietnam and do not carry meaning about “ethnic countries” (For example: Vietnam is one. The Vietnamese nation is one, and etc.). But also need to distinguish the concept of “ Ethnic minority “ and the concept of “ Race“ because race is the group who formed in history on a certain territory, there are some common hereditary characteristics in their body (for example, the “white skin” race, ‘yellow skin’ race and “black skin” race ) 1.2.2. The characteristics of primary teachers from ethnic minority 1.2.2.1. The characteristics of the ethnic group and region (1). the characteristics of the ethnic group: Because this will have a great effect of the place they live in/ the region, so each ethnic group presents some factors as : language; common cultural characteristics; and self-discipline of ethnic group: Each teacher from ethnic minority in general and primary teacher from ethnic minority in 7 particular are people who can speak at least 2 languages(Mother language + Vietnamese + the other language ) and also carrying multicultural ( the culture in the place they stay + the Vietnamese culture + the other culture ) Therefore, education environment is also a multicultural environment. Although the primary teachers is local in that place but education environment is still the multicultural environment. The teacher from ethnic minority is just a part of ethnic minorities in class. Not to mention the teachers are from ethnic minorities but their class is not included in their ethnic group but the others. This strength as well as the barriers if we cannot exploit and used appropriately (2). the characteristics of region: Characteristics in the different regions, in the different ethnic group, becoming primary school teachers by the different ways, etc. make the primary teachers from ethnic minority have the similarities and differences in knowledge, personal capacity. 1.2.2.2. Professional development feature (1) Some characteristics related to the number of primary teachers from ethnic minority: The formation and development of primary teachers’ team from ethic minority is affected by natural condition, socio- economic in minority regions. In recent years, thank to priority policies of the government, a number of primary teachers from ethic minority have increased rapidly, focus on some spacious minority such as elementary teachers from Muong ethnic in Hoa Binh; from Mong and Tay ethnic in Lao Cai and Yen Bai; from Thai ethnic in Dien Bien, Son La, Lai Chau; and concentrate in areas II (difficult areas), areas III (particularly difficult areas) of Northwest provinces and the Kinh teachers in ethnic only account for minority. This reveals that the number of primary teachers from ethnic is considered majority for each region, sub-region but it is minority in comparison with the total of ones in whole region and country. On the other hand, considering the number of ethnic minority students, the Northwest ethic minority primary teachers are incommensurate. (2) Some characteristics related to the qu
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