Tóm tắt Luận án Conceptual metaphors domain "food" in Vietnamese

"People first need to eat, drink, have shelter and clothes before doing politics, science, art, and religion". That is the statement of Engels in his Feunaral oration reading in front of the Karl Marx grave. In which, "eating" is listed the first essential demand of human. Moreover, food is also paid attention to the areas of the cultural and spiritual. Do Huu Chau in [7] stated that different cultures lead to the different languages; different languages leads to the differences in cultural behaviors, and metaphor is one part of the culture. Thus, the consistent viewpoint has been confirmed for a long time is that culinary as well as language (more specific, the metaphor) has a close relationship with culture.

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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING HANOI NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION NGUYEN THI BICH HOP CONCEPTUAL METAPHORS DOMAIN "FOOD" IN VIETNAMESE Speciality: Vietnamese Linguistic Classification: PH.D. THESIS SUMMMARIZATION HANOI - 2015 The thesis is carried out at: Hanoi National University of Education Advisor: Associate Professor Doctor. Dang Thi Hao Tam Examiner 1: Professor Doctor. Bui Minh Toan Hanoi National University of Education Examiner 2: Associate Professor Doctor. Nguyen Van Loc Thai Nguyen University of Education Examiner 3: Associate Professor Doctor. Pham Van Hao Vietnam Linguistic Association The thesis will be defended in front of the Board of Examiners for a Phylosophy Degree at Hanoi national university of education At: .. on .. The thesis is available at library: - National Library of Vietnam - Library of Hanoi National University of Education THE RESEARCH MADE BY THE AUTHOR Nguyen Thi Bich Hop (2013), "Elementary field vocabulary Vietnamese indicative of human feelings with food and human notions (in Vietnamese and English)", Journal of Dictionary and encyclopedia no. 3 (23) -2013. Nguyen Thi Bich Hop (2013), "Conceptual metaphor "items relating to food" in Vietnamese" (Proceedings National Workshop of Linguistics, University of Education 10/2013) Nguyen Thi Bich Hop (2015), "Entity metaphor with target domain concept "food" in Vietnamese standpoint Cognitive Linguistics" (National Workshop of Linguistics, University of Saigon 04/2015) Nguyen Thi Bich Hop (2015), "Oriented metaphor of concept "food" in Vietnamese", Journal of Language No. 6 (313)-2015. PROLOGUE 1.1. "People first need to eat, drink, have shelter and clothes before doing politics, science, art, and religion". That is the statement of Engels in his Feunaral oration reading in front of the Karl Marx grave. In which, "eating" is listed the first essential demand of human. Moreover, food is also paid attention to the areas of the cultural and spiritual. Do Huu Chau in [7] stated that different cultures lead to the different languages; different languages ​​leads to the differences in cultural behaviors, and metaphor is one part of the culture. Thus, the consistent viewpoint has been confirmed for a long time is that culinary as well as language (more specific, the metaphor) has a close relationship with culture. According to the concept of world cognitive linguistics, "food" is one of the basic fundamental source. (Kovecses identified in "Cooking and Food" in [141]. Research metaphorical notion of "food" in Vietnamese in comparision with another language will help find the similarities and differences in culture and thinking. 1.2. Language reflects reality through the subjective prism. According to the viewpoint of cognitive science: language is a tool of human cognitive, in which, the metaphor is one of the typical and effective tools. Cognitive linguistics focus on the relationship between language – psychological and is the research object of the interdisciplinary science. Metaphor does not only appear in poetry but also plays an important role in many areas such as daily life, economic, diplomatic, advertisement, science, cinema and politics, etc.. In Vietnam, cognitive linguistics is a quite young and new research. However, it has gained many achievements. It can be said that, cognitive linguistics in general, and the conceptual metaphors in particular are getting the attention of the Vietnamese linguists, and is a potential and promising direction. 1.3. However, in Vietnam, among researches on cognitive linguistics, there has not been any individual work studying about Food in Vietnamese language. From the above reasons, we decided to choose the theme: Conceptual metaphors domain " food" in Vietnamese. 2. Purpose and research tasks 2.1. Research purposes The aim of the thesis is to apply the theory in cognitive linguistics to Vietnamese to establish the conceptual structure and conceptual domain “food”, discover the target domains, the source domains, mapping system and the mapping mechanism among the conceptual domains; codifying metaphorical notion of "food" in Vietnamese in order to study cognitive characteristics and Vietnamese cultural identity through conceptual metaphor of "food”. In addition, the thesis also noted the metonymy cognitive phenomenon, and blending concepts in the relation of the conceptual metaphors. 2.2. Research Tasks - Systematizing the cognitive linguistics issues to use it as the basic theoretical for the subject directly; selecting some solutions to the unrealized unify theoretical issues. -Finding out the conception and conceptual domain of "food" in Vietnamese; building the domain structures by identifying and analyzing the typical data and sociological surveys. - Investigating and researching the other conteptual domains which have metaphor relation to the conceptual domain of "food"; setting the mapping system; identifying mapping mechanisms between the domains and noting the fusion concept. - Counting, classifying and analyzing the highlight concept of "food". - Distilling and explaining the value of cultural and ethnic identity of thinking through the metaphorical conceptual of "food". - Comparing and contrasting to the foreign languages in the case of necessity. 3. The Objects and scopes of research 3.1. Research objects: The objects of the research are all topics of cognitive function, structure, characteristics, mechanism action and the issues related to conceptual metaphor systems domain "food" in Vietnamese. 3.2. The scope of Research The scope of research is the whole system of conceptual metaphorical of "food" in Vietnamese from traditional to modern time in the general relationship between the source domain, target domain, mapping systems and the involved mindset cultural valuable. The thesis is mainly focus on doing survey to explore the conceptual metaphor of "food” in the natural language, folk songs, proverbs, idioms - a place to store the living conception and cultural knowledge of the Vietnamese; language in the literature works of Vietnam modern; in the cinema, contemporary journalism in oder to identify the conceptual metaphors in traditional as well as living contemporary of Vietnamese. The English used for comparison in the thesis were extracted from the British National Corpus, a text search tool on the website 4. Research Methodology - Methods of analysis, describing - Prime statistical methods, classification - Methods of sociological investigation - Comparative method 5. New contribution of the thesis 5.1. Theory The research’s results will contribute to the theory of cognitive linguistics in Vietnam. The thesis also contributes to the demonstration that cognitive metaphor is not only the Rhetorical figure of poetry but also an aspect of daily language, culture and thinking. 5.2. Reality The thesis is a work applying the theory of cognitive linguistics to the Vietnamese practical to analyze and evaluate the literature linguistic data and living language. The thesis puts the conception and the conceptual metaphorical of "food" in the relations with Vietnam culture, using culture to explain the estimative cognitive and use conceptual metaphors to identify cultural factors. The results of the research can be used as an example of Vietnamese culture to spread, introduce or apply in the teaching and studying about the metaphors and culture of Vietnamese or teaching Vietnamese. In conclusion, the thesis is the first PhD work in Vietnam deeply study about the conceptual metaphor domain "food" in the view of the cognitive linguistic. 6. The structure of the thesis Apart from the prologue, conclusion, references and appendices, the dissertation consists of 4 chapters: - Chapter 1: Overview of research and basis theoretical - Chapter 2: Conceptual Domain of "food" in Vietnamese - Chapter 3: Mapping metaphors, conceptual blending of "food" with the other domain concepts in Vietnamese. - Chapter 4: The conceptual metaphor system of "food" in Vietnamese. Chapter 1 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH AND THEORETICAL BACKGROUND Overview of research 1.1.1. Outline of cognitive linguistics and studies about conceptual metaphors In the world, researches on conceptual metaphor turned up associated with the establishment of conceptual linguistics in 70s of 20th century. The first work marks the transformation of the metaphor research trend is Metaphor We Live By of G. Lakoff and M. Johnson, published in 1980. The authors asserted "The common conceptual system of us, basing on it, we both thinking and acting, mainly have metaphoric in nature ". Authors like G. Lakoff, M. Johnson, Z. Kovecses, G. Fauconnier, M. Turner, C. Fillmore ... studied some theories, new concepts like embodiemnt, cognitive frames, conceptual metaphor, mapping, conceptual domain, mental space, conceptual blending. The practical application of the conceptual metaphor in term of the cognitive objects like emotional, the space-time, sex... obtained the results on the different fields such as the poetry, education, articles, cinema, politics and especially in everyday language; in the ​​other languages than English, such as Morocco, Chinese... In addition, the researchers have found a closed relationship between conceptual metaphor and culture, in the binds among human - language – social. The conceptual metaphor is regarded a door to understand the mind , human thinking and social characteristics. In Vietnam, Cognitive linguistics was officially named in Vietnam in Ngôn ngữ học tri nhận nhìn từ lý thuyết đại cương đến thực tiễn tiếng Việt (cognitive linguistics from general theory to Vietnamese practical) of Ly Toan Thang and determined by many scholars Lý Toàn Thắng; Trần Văn Cơ; Nguyễn Đức Tồn; Nguyễn Thiện Giáp; Nguyễn Văn Hiệp, Đặng Thị Hảo Tâm Conceptual metaphor has become the research subject which cognitive study in Vietnam has taken into consideration. Studies mentioned to this subject has divided into two categories: researches mainly study about conceptual metaphor of Phan Thế Hưng (2010); Võ Kim Hà (2011); Hà Thanh Hải (2011); Trịnh Thị Thanh Huệ (2012); Trần Thị Phương Lý (2012); Nguyễn Thị Bích Hạnh (2014); Phạm Thị Hương Quỳnh (2015); and researches on other cognition matters, in which there is a part relating to conceptual metaphor like dissertations of Ly Lan (2012); Nguyễn Ngọc Vũ (2012); Trần Bá Tiến (2013); Vi Trường Phúc (2013); Huỳnh Ngọc Mai Kha (2015); Nguyễn Thu Quỳnh (2015) In the research scopes and objectives, we just discuss below some issues directly relate to the theme – food investigation in domestic and foreign cognitive linguistics. 1.1.2. An overview of the food research in cognitive linguistics Research in the world In the world, from the first classic book, G. Lakoff and M. Johnson, in the frequent system of conceptual metaphor, has mentioned to the metaphor: "IDEAS ARE FOOD" Author Kovecses when stating the source and popular domain in his book, Metaphor: A Practical Introduction, also listed the source domain "Cooking and Food", and mentioned of the related conceptual metaphor. In addition, the conceptual metaphor in English: SEX IS EATING, THE NEED FOR INFORMATION IS-HUNGER, THINKING IS EATING; Morocco: TEMPERAMENT IS FOOD, LEARNING IS EATING, UNDERSTANDING IS TASTING. In the extensive capabilities of ours, the conceptual metaphor of "food" in the world has been being interested in and named many metaphor interestingly. Research in Vietnam Regarding to bridging trends from traditional linguistics to cognitive linguistics, after studying the vocabulary of the food system, structures, and the characteristics of language, writing of Dinh Phuong Thao (2008) spent Chapter 3 mentioning some conceptual metaphors related to food: TIME IS FOOD, HUMAN IS FOOD. Dissertations of Tran Thi Que Chi (2011) also refers to conceptual metaphors related to eating: SEX IS EATING. Do not follow the cognitive theory, the dissertation by Ngo Minh Nguyet can be seen as the most intensive work on food research subjects. However, this thesis is too fond of Chinese; the exploration and conclusions in Vietnamese is liltle. 1.1.3. General assessment So far in Vietnam, there are not any independent studies focused on exploring the conceptual metaphor domain “food” thoroughly and compeletly. The existing studies have been the basic background and suggestions for us to implement the thesis "The metaphor conceptual domain "food "in Vietnamese." Theoretical Background Cognitive linguistics is a research trend studying language in relation to psychology. With the attention of many scholars inside and outside the country, theoretical issues of cognitive linguistics has increasingly developed and widespread, many concepts of cognitive science has become familiar. In the scope of the study, we just mention theoretical issue which is the direct basis of study, fundamental matter which is regarded as the background knowledge systems of cognitive science in general. Cognitive linguistics in particular will not be mentioned here. 1.2.1. Embodiment The core principle of cognitive linguistics is "anthropocentrism”, according to this, human body is the factor affecting experience and the foundation to activate concepts forming a metaphor. On the other hand, acquired experience also governs the way people perceive the world, processes the new experience of human being. 1.2.2. Concept and conceptual metaphor Concept Concept is the basic unit of cognitive linguistics, has descriptive and emotional characteristics, volition and symbol. The concept system doesn’t have a clear demarcation, concept structure is a normal structure, its function consists of center and periphery ones. The meaning of concept is the harmony of silhouette and background In conceptualization process, there are four types of common cognitive models, including: clause model, object-diagram model, metaphor model and metonymy model. Conceptual metaphors Conceptual metaphor is the conceptualization of a conceptual domain through a different one, called “mapping”, it has a system from a source domain to a target domain so as to create a cognitive model (metaphor model), helps to acquire a more specific and effective target domain. Cognitive linguistics distinguishes conceptual metaphors and language metaphors (just a form of conceptual metaphors); and regards comparison as the weak form of metaphor. Metaphor is classified into: structural metaphor; ontological metaphors and orientational metaphors 1.2.3. Domain, source domain, target domain and mapping Domain Domain or conceptual domain is the set of concepts associated with mental content as cognitive entities, attributes and relationships. Each conceptual domain also includes many conceptual groups belonging to different categories and exists official examples. Source domain and target domain Source domain and target domain are reflective terms referring to conceptual domains in the structure of conceptual metaphors. Source domain is normally concrete, visual, recognizable, while target domain tends to be abstract, difficult to identify and fresh to perception or experience. Conceptual domain is relatively independent, while target domain is closely associated with conceptual metaphors. Mapping Mapping is the projection between source domain’s elements and the corresponding ones of target domain. The nature of mapping is fixed, routing and partial. The mechanism of mapping is the activation based on the body, experience and knowledge. Conceptual blending is a different perspective regarding mapping. It is the integration of four mental spaces with multi-dimensional relational mapping. 1.2.4. Prototype Prototype is a concept associated with cognitive categories and categorization. It is a typical member, in the center of the category, which is the best example, the most prominent one. 1.2.5. Cognitive model Cognitive model is common ways to conceptualize the general world. There are four types of cognitive model: - Clause model - Image map model - Metaphor model - Metonymy model 1.2.6. Conceptual blending Conceptual blending is the integration of four mental spaces (common space, mixed space 1-2, blended space) with multidimensional mapping relationships. In the conceptual mixed model, certain elements are highlighted, standout, interact and formulate a new conceptual structure in the conceptual blending space Summary CHAPTER 2 CONCEPTUAL DOMAIN ABOUT “FOOD” IN VIETNAMESE 2.1. “Food” cognition in Vietnamese 2.1.1. Regarding “food” conception “Food” in this study is: thing made by human to feed the body (generally) 2.1.2. Elements of “food” conception Nuclear element of “food” conception “Food” conception includes 17 elements forming two levels, it’s established by experienced stimulations, to specify: - Level 1: food entity, taste, characteristic, form, (activity), processing, (activity), eat. - Level 2: Container, Recipes, Ingredients, Spices, Utensil, Decoration, Objects, Feeling, Status, Event, Subject The periphery value of "food" conception Concept has a functional structure, it’s organized according to the center and periphery model. If the center is a nuclear concept, the peripheral is a range of cultural elements associated with each other to create the value field of concepts, including national culture, social group culture, individual culture, regional culture and ethnic culture. 2.1.3. Silhouette and background structure of "food" conception Background is the widest, dominant in the creation of "food" conception, is the foundation of "food". The notions creating silhouette on this background consist of "dish", “ingredients”, "food", and “spice". The regional background, including "nature", "taste", "characteristics" has an interference with "food" background. Two serial regions border with “food” background is "operation with food" (the basis of "processing" and "enjoy food” notion), "utensils relating to food" (including the notions of "process", "decorate", "enjoy" food). The final one is "human" where the conceptions of “human” “feel", "status" in relation to “food” drop shadows. 2.2. The structure of "food" conceptual domain in Vietnamese 2.2.1. Conception groups, the relationship between conception groups Regarding the elements of “food” notion, on the basis of the foundation analyzed, we conducted a survey to compare two dictionaries and codified 910 units indicating different aspects of “food” domain, divided into 5 groups: Entities, Features, Utensils, Activity, Feeling, and Perception. There is a closely chained relationship between them, due to the stimulation of the central elements of this group to the central elements of the other group. 2.2.2. Typical Form   Typical form is a typical member of a set, this is the best example. Through delimiting corpus and sociology, 5 typical forms of “food” domain are defined as: Rice, Salty, Bowl, Eat, Hungry. 2.3. Conceptual model of “dish” cognition domain 2.3.1. Clause model    The clause model is the cognition structure about the relationship between concept and concept, expressed by the language clause. Some typical clause model about “food” concept are as followed: (1) Functional clause - Rice is bowel’s mother - Spring roll is tasty, plain rice flan is saturated (2) Characteristic clause - Difficult to hold one chopstick Midnight, recalling this, compassionating old flame - Eight-eagle Chung Cake is perfectly arranged (3) Adjustment Clause - One hundred weddings is nothing comparing to catfish’s lower jaw - Rump is the best, head-wing is the second (4) Experience Clause - Rare dried betel-nut, out of mourning woman, full-fledged bird, cluck hen
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